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 Reconstruction: rebuilding of the South from 1865-1877.  After the war, the South needed to be rebuilt physically, economically, and politically. 

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Presentation on theme: " Reconstruction: rebuilding of the South from 1865-1877.  After the war, the South needed to be rebuilt physically, economically, and politically. "— Presentation transcript:

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2  Reconstruction: rebuilding of the South from  After the war, the South needed to be rebuilt physically, economically, and politically.  Reconstruction was the rebuilding of these systems after the war.

3  Lincoln began planning for Reconstruction during the war. VP Andrew Johnson who succeeded Lincoln attempted to carry on his plan: -would offer a general amnesty to all Southerners who took an oath of loyalty and accepted the end of slavery. -When 10 percent of the state’s voters took the oath, the state could organize a new state government. -Lincoln’s plan was very lenient and was intended to make it easy for the South to rejoin the Union.

4  Johnson became President after Lincoln’s assassination in  Johnson plan for Reconstruction went against Radical Republicans.  He began to allow Southern states back into the Union after they ratified the 13 th Amendment.  He required a presidential pardon for many former Confederates, but began to pardon many former leaders and many were then elected to the US Congress.

5  Republicans in Congress offered their own plan for Reconstruction: -Wanted to prevent Confederate leaders from regaining power after the war. -Install the Republican Party in the South. -Wanted the Federal government to help African Americans by giving them the right to vote. The Radical Republican plan was much harsher on the South.

6  Many former slaves expected the federal government to give them land as compensation for slavery.  Union General William Sherman encouraged this expectation in 1865 by granting a number of freed men 40 acres each of the abandoned land left in the wake of his army.  Congress overturned this decision and the sharecropping system emerged.  Sharecropping was a system where black families would rent small plots of land in return for a portion of their crop, to be given to the landowner at the end of each year.

7  Congress in an effort to aid the former slaves formed the Freedmen’s Bureau.  The Bureau was in charge of feeding, clothing and finding jobs for the former slaves. The Bureau also played a major role in establishing schools for freedmen.

8  13 th Amendment : Passed by Congress in 1865, it banned slavery in the US. Southern states had to ratify the 13 th Amendment to rejoin the Union.  14 th Amendment : Passed by Congress in 1866, it granted citizenship to all people born or naturalized (including former slaves) in the US.  Southern States had to ratify the14 th Amendment in order to rejoin the Union.  15 th Amendment : Ratified in 1870, the right to vote cannot be denied “on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.”  In essence, the 15 th Amendment granted suffrage to former male slaves.

9  When Congress reconvened many Radical Republicans were outraged with Johnson’s plan.  The new Southern governments began to pass black codes which were laws designed to keep African Americans in a state of slavery.  The 14 th Amendment was passed in response to the black codes: Johnson was opposed to the 14 th Amendment.  Republicans began to reverse many of Johnson’s plans.

10  Formed in 1865 by former Confederate officers to: -Fight against Reconstruction -drive out Northern Carpetbaggers -help the Democratic Party regain power in the South Their goal was to restore white control through threats and violence.

11  In 1867 Congress passed the Office of Tenure Act which denied the president the power to remove any executive officer without the approval of the Senate.  Johnson removed Sec of War Edwin Stanton from office.  The Senate then moved to impeachment proceedings to determine whether Johnson should be removed from office.  Congress impeached Johnson, charging him with refusing to uphold the law.  Congress came up one vote short of finding Johnson guilty. Johnson remained President, but did not run for re-election in 1868.

12  In 1876 Rutherford B. Hayes was elected President in a highly contested race.  Hayes lost the popular votes but was awarded 20 disputed electoral votes as a result of the Compromise of  According to the compromise Hayes would withdraw of all Union troops from the South after he was elected President.  After the troops left white Southerners regained control and worked to strengthen segregation.


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