Presentation on theme: "Essential Questions 1. How to bring the South back into the Union? 2. What branch of government should control the process of Reconstruction? 3. How do."— Presentation transcript:
Essential Questions 1. How to bring the South back into the Union? 2. What branch of government should control the process of Reconstruction? 3. How do we integrate and protect newly- emancipated black freedmen?
President Lincoln’s Plan 10% Plan * Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction (December 1863) * Pardon to all but the highest ranking military Confederate officers. * When 10% of the state’s voters had taken an oath of loyalty, accepted Eman. Pro and established a government, it would be recognized. * Did not consult Congress
Wade-Davis Bill (1864) Required over 50% of state’s voters to take an oath of allegiance. Then state elections could be held. Lincoln killed the Bill. Senator Benjamin Wade (R-OH) Congressman Henry W. Davis (R-MD)
President Johnson’s Plan Offered amnesty upon oath to all (except Confederate military officers and wealthy southern planters) Required to ratify 13 th amendment No minimum percentage of loyal voters needed to form state gov’t.
Southern Defiance Purpose of Black Codes: * Restore pre-emancipation system of race relations. * Guarantee stable labor supply now that blacks were emancipated. Groups like the KKK formed
Congress Breaks with the President Congress bars Southern Congressional delegates. February, 1866 President vetoed the Freedmen’s Bureau bill. March, 1866 Johnson vetoed the 1866 Civil Rights Act. Congress passed both bills over Johnson’s vetoes 1 st in U. S. history!!
Talk to your neighbor: 1)How was President Johnson’s readmission plan different from President Lincolns? 2)What happens as a result of President Johnson’s leniency towards the South?
14 th Amendment Ratified in July, 1868. * Citizenship granted to everyone born in the United States. * Provide a constitutional guarantee of the rights and security of freed people.
Radical Plan for Readmission New Requirements for Readmission Ratify the 14 th Amendment Rewrite state constitution which would allow freedmen to vote Form new gov’t which would be elected by all male citizens, including African- Americans
15 th Amendment Ratified in 1870. The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.
New Governments in the South Scalawags: supporters of reconstructionScalawags: supporters of reconstruction Carpetbaggers: Northerners that came to take part in the region’s political and economic growthCarpetbaggers: Northerners that came to take part in the region’s political and economic growth 700 freedmen served in Southern legislatures, 16 sent to congress700 freedmen served in Southern legislatures, 16 sent to congress
Responses to Freedom Many freedmen moved to urban areas Some moved West to become cowboys, business owners, miners, and soldiers Most stayed in the rural south Freedmen’s Bureau began 4,000 schools and many African Americans began to get an education
Share Cropping The employer provided the land, seed, tools, a mule, and a cabin.The employer provided the land, seed, tools, a mule, and a cabin. Sharecropper would provide labor and share part of the profits of their crop.Sharecropper would provide labor and share part of the profits of their crop.
Reconstruction Ends Discontent with Reconstruction Army still needed in South African-Americans still in poverty Southern economy still in bad shape Federal Troops are removed and reconstruction gov’ts crumble Lasting impact: 14 th and 15 th Amendments