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Essential Question ► What was the impact of southern Reconstruction?

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Presentation on theme: "Essential Question ► What was the impact of southern Reconstruction?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Essential Question ► What was the impact of southern Reconstruction?

2 Reconstruction

3 State of the South







10 Questions of Reconstruction ► How to rebuild the South after the Civil War? ► How to readmit the Confederate states to the Union?

11 Lincoln’s Ten Percent Plan ► Offer amnesty (pardon) to those willing to take a loyalty oath to the United States ► 10 percent of the population must take the oath = readmission as a state

12 Andrew Johnson ► Democrat ► From Tennessee ► Remained loyal to the Union when TN seceded

13 Johnson’s Reconstruction Plan ► Pardon all southerners who take an oath of loyalty to the Union ► Former Confederate states could set up state governments

14 Johnson’ Reconstruction Plan ► Each state needed to revoke secession, ratify the 13 th amendment

15 Black Codes ► Southern laws which limited African American rights in the South ► Intended to keep African Americans in a condition of slavery

16 Radical Republicans ► Opposed Johnson’s plan ► Led by Thaddeus Stevens

17 Fourteenth Amendment ► June 1866 ► Granted citizenship to all persons born or naturalized in the United States

18 Military Reconstruction Act ► Passed by Congress ► Divided the South in five military districts ► Union general was in charge of each district

19 Military Reconstruction Act ► New state constitutions ► Right to vote for all males ► Must ratify the 14 th amendment

20 Fifteenth Amendment ► March 1870 ► Right to vote cannot be denied “on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude”

21 Freedmen’s Bureau ► Need for food and shelter for freed slaves ► Many settled on plantation lands

22 Freedmen’s Bureau ► Task of feeding and clothing former slaves ► Find work for them ► Negotiate labor contracts ► Began education

23 Freedmen’s Bureau


25 Impeachment of Johnson ► Johnson vetoed every policy from Congress ► Congress overrode his vetoes

26 Impeachment of Johnson (1868) ► House of Representatives voted for his impeachment ► Senate put Johnson on trial ► Final vote – one vote shy of removing him from office

27 Sharecropping ► New system for agriculture ► Tenant farmers paid rent with a share of their crops

28 Sharecropping ► Landlords – landowners who control sharecroppers ► Crop liens – crops taken to cover debts

29 Sharecropping ► Sharecroppers became trapped because farmers could not pay their debts ► Debt peonage

30 Republican Rule

31 Republicans in the South ► By 1870, all former Confederate states had joined the Union ► Republicans held political power ► Included freed slaves, northerners, poor whites

32 Carpetbaggers ► Northerners moving into the South ► Became involved in politics

33 Scalawags ► White southerners who worked with Republicans and supported Reconstruction

34 African Americans ► First led by the educated ► Many who lived in the North and had fought for the Union army ► Became involved in politics

35 Southern Resistance ► Against political power in the hands of African Americans ► Against Republicans leading southern politics

36 Ku Klux Klan ► Started in 1866 by Nathaniel Bedford Forrest ► Secret society ► Mostly former Confederate soldiers

37 Goals of the KKK ► Drive out carpetbaggers ► Regain control of the South for the Democratic Party ► Use terror

38 Tactics of the KKK ► Broke up Republican meetings ► Harassed Freedmen’s Bureau workers ► Burned homes, churches, schools ► Kept Republicans (white and black) from voting

39 Letter to the U.S. Senate “We believe you are not familiar with the description of the Ku Klux Klan’s riding nightly over the country, going from county to county, and in the county towns spreading terror wherever they go by robbing, whipping, ravishing, and killing our people without provocation... We pray you will take some steps to remedy these evils.”

40 Ku Klux Klan Act ► Passed by Congress in 1871 ► Outlawed activities of the Klan ► Federal arrests

41 Compromise of 1877 ► 1876 – presidential election ► Republican – Rutherford B. Hayes ► Democrat – Samuel Tilden

42 Compromise of 1877 ► Election results disputed in three southern states ► Results decided by Congress ► Rutherford B. Hayes won with the support of southern Democrats

43 End of Reconstruction ► April 1877 ► Hayes pulled federal troops out of the South ► Southern Democrats took control of all state legislatures

44 Jim Crow Laws ► Southern states create laws to segregate public space

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