Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

The Proficiency Orientation of Existing Methodologies The Natural Approach (p120-123) Developed by Terrell (based on Krashen’s theory of second language.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "The Proficiency Orientation of Existing Methodologies The Natural Approach (p120-123) Developed by Terrell (based on Krashen’s theory of second language."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Proficiency Orientation of Existing Methodologies The Natural Approach (p ) Developed by Terrell (based on Krashen’s theory of second language acquisition. Terrell’s main premise: “It is possible for students in a classroom situation to learn to communicate in a second language.”

2 The Proficiency Orientation of Existing Methodologies The Natural Approach (p ) Major theoretical assumptions Terrell stressed a “lowering” of structural accuracy in order to increase oral competency.

3 The Proficiency Orientation of Existing Methodologies The Natural Approach (p ) Major theoretical assumptions Speech is often ungrammatical. Requiring oral speech to be grammatically “correct” may serve to make it “artificial.”

4 The Proficiency Orientation of Existing Methodologies The Natural Approach (p ) Major theoretical assumptions The Natural Approach is therefore setting language learning at an Intermediate or survival kind of language learning in order to lower anxiety and stress.

5 The Proficiency Orientation of Existing Methodologies The Natural Approach (p ) Major theoretical assumptions Beginning language instruction should focus on immediate communicative competence rather than on grammatical perfection

6 The Proficiency Orientation of Existing Methodologies The Natural Approach (p ) Major theoretical assumptions Instruction needs to be aimed at modification and improvement of students’ developing grammar rather than building grammar up rule by rule.

7 The Proficiency Orientation of Existing Methodologies The Natural Approach (p ) Major theoretical assumptions Teachers should give students adequate time to acquire language rather than force them to learn it.

8 The Proficiency Orientation of Existing Methodologies The Natural Approach (p ) Major theoretical assumptions Affective rather than cognitive factors are primary to language learning.

9 The Proficiency Orientation of Existing Methodologies The Natural Approach (p ) Major theoretical assumptions An important key to language learning is building a large vocabulary.

10 The Proficiency Orientation of Existing Methodologies The Natural Approach (p ) Guidelines for classroom Design classroom activities to evoke communication.

11 The Proficiency Orientation of Existing Methodologies The Natural Approach (p ) Guidelines for classroom Eliminate error correction. It is not helpful and negatively impacts students’ affective filters. This concept has caused the greatest concern in regard to this method. Adaptations call for allowing error correction to occur in segments of class devoted to pronunciation and grammar without consistently interrupting conversational speech and discussions to correct errors…

12 The Proficiency Orientation of Existing Methodologies The Natural Approach (p ) Guidelines for classroom Permit responses in L1 in early language learning. 1) Allows understanding to develop without raising anxiety; 2) maintains “flow” of the class period

13 The Proficiency Orientation of Existing Methodologies The Natural Approach (p ) Guidelines for classroom Use simplified speech at first slower rate, with clear articulation, diminished contractions, longer pauses, and extra volume

14 The Proficiency Orientation of Existing Methodologies The Natural Approach (p ) Guidelines for classroom Use simplified speech at first use explanations, paraphrases, gestures, and pictures to define new words or concepts

15 The Proficiency Orientation of Existing Methodologies The Natural Approach (p ) Guidelines for classroom Use simplified speech at first simplification of syntax and the use of redundancy

16 The Proficiency Orientation of Existing Methodologies The Natural Approach (p ) Guidelines for classroom Use simplified speech at first use yes/no questions, tag questions*, forced choice (either/or) questions, and questions with a sample answer provided * It’s a beautiful day, isn’t it? A tag question is a Teacher statement, followed by a “tag question” requesting a “yes” or “no” response… Note that some cultures (or learning disability students) may experience difficulties with this format. If you have Asian students learning the language you are teaching, you may need to teach them how to respond to tag questions… A tag question is a Teacher statement, followed by a “tag question” requesting a “yes” or “no” response… Note that some cultures (or learning disability students) may experience difficulties with this format. If you have Asian students learning the language you are teaching, you may need to teach them how to respond to tag questions…

17 The Proficiency Orientation of Existing Methodologies The Natural Approach (p ) Sample classroom activities Preproduction phase* Listening comprehension practice No requirement to speak in TL (early) *This phase lasts about five class hours for university students, but may last several months for younger students.

18 The Proficiency Orientation of Existing Methodologies The Natural Approach (p ) Sample classroom activities Preproduction phase Comprehension achieved through contextual guessing, TPR techniques, use of gestures/visual aids, data gleaned from personalized student input

19 The Proficiency Orientation of Existing Methodologies The Natural Approach (p ) Sample classroom activities Preproduction phase One technique used by Terrell in beginning classes was to describe a person in terms of physical attributes and have student stand up when they recognized he was describing them.

20 The Proficiency Orientation of Existing Methodologies The Natural Approach (p ) Sample classroom activities After the pre-production phase, these techniques can be used as warm ups for individual classes

21 The Proficiency Orientation of Existing Methodologies The Natural Approach (p ) Sample classroom activities Early speech production Occurs after students know about 500 words Begin production activities with yes/no, single word, or questions in which you have provided the choices

22 The Proficiency Orientation of Existing Methodologies The Natural Approach (p ) Sample classroom activities Speech emergence Occurs after early speech production phase Achievement of this level is encouraged through games, personalized activities, and information and problem-solving activities—no error correction given

23 The Proficiency Orientation of Existing Methodologies The Natural Approach (p ) This approach is geared toward proficiency, however, the lack of error correction may reduce the level of proficiency. Savignon and other suggest ways to overcome these problems in a variety of adaptations


Download ppt "The Proficiency Orientation of Existing Methodologies The Natural Approach (p120-123) Developed by Terrell (based on Krashen’s theory of second language."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google