Presentation on theme: "ORAL BASED APPROACH SKINNER´S BEHAVIORIST THEORY CONDITIONING RESULT of THREE STAGES STIMULUS RESPONSE REINFORCEMENT 1 ST T E R M T. Acquisition of SENTENCE."— Presentation transcript:
ORAL BASED APPROACH SKINNER´S BEHAVIORIST THEORY CONDITIONING RESULT of THREE STAGES STIMULUS RESPONSE REINFORCEMENT 1 ST T E R M T. Acquisition of SENTENCE PATTERNS of TARGET LANGUAGE is achieved through CONDITIONING
APPROACH Systems within systems THEORY of LANGUAGE STRUCTURAL LINGUISTICS organized in pyramidal structures.Speech is primary THEORY OF LEARNING BEHAVIORISM Mechanical habit formation. Spoken forms first. Analogy: inductive teaching of grammar. Vocabulary in context. DESIGN OBJECTIVES Short- range : Training in listening-comprehension; accurate pronunciation; acquaintance of vocabulary; recognition of speech symbols; ability to reproduce them in writing. Long-range : Mastering language as a native speaker SYLLABUS: LINGUISTIC (phonology; morphology and syntax) and LEXICAL TYPES OF LEARNING/TEACHING ACTIVITIES: DIALOGUES and DRILLS LEARNER ROLES: Reactive role responding to stimuli TEACHER ROLES: Central role Modelling / Controlling / Correcting text books (not at the beginning) ROLES OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS : Teacher oriented tape recorders / lab/ audiovisual Modelling(by teacher) – Repetition (individual, choral)- Memorizing- PROCEDURE Drilling – Follow-up reading or writing or vocabulary activities
ORAL APPROACH or SITUATIONAL METHOD PALMER/ HORNBY P R * TARGET LANGUAGE IS THE LANGUAGE OF INSTRUCTION I * NEW LANGUAGE TOPICS ARE PRESENTED SITUATIONALLY N * VOCABULARY: KEY LEXICAL ITEMS C * GRAMMAR ITEMS: GRADED I * READING AND WRITING: INTRODUCED WHEN LEARNERS HAVE P MASTERED CERTAIN AMOUNT OF LEXICAL AND GRAMMATICAL L ITEMS. E S
COMMUNICATIVE LANGUAGE TEACHING (=CLT) HYMES-WIDDOWSON-WILKINS 1960 COMMUNICATIVE COMPETENCE Communication requires not only mastering linguistic structures but performing certain functions within a social context P R I N C LEARNERS LEARN LANGUAGE BY USING IT IGOAL OF CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES: AUTHENTIC AND MEANINGFUL COMM. PFLUENCY IS PRIMARY LCOMMUNICATION INVOLVES THE INTEGRATION OF DIFFERENT SKILLS ELEARNING IS A CREATIVE PROCESS THAT INVOLVES TRIAL AND ERROR. S
APPROACH Language is a system for the expression of THEORY of LANGUAGE COMMUNICATIVE meaning. ( interaction and communication) COMPETENCE Primary units of language: structural features but also FUNCTIONAL AND COMMUNICATIVE MEANING THEORY OF LEARNING Inferred from Learning is promoted by: CLT practices -activities that involve real communication - meaningful tasks. - meaningful language DESIGN OBJECTIVES Three levels CONTENT LEVEL (Language as means of expression) LINGUISTIC LEVEL (language as object of learning) AFFECTIVE LEVEL (language as vehicle for expressing values and judgements about oneself and others)
SYLLABUS : Notional ( organized in terms of notions and functions rather than grammatical structures) TYPES OF LEARNING/TEACHING ACTIVITIES FUNCTIONAL COMMUNICATION ACTIVITIES SOCIAL INTERACTION ACTIVITIES LEARNER ROLES : NEGOTIATOR WITHIN THE GROUP and COOPERATIVE APPROACH WITHIN THE CLASSROOM PROCEDURES and ACTIVITIES the GROUP UNDERTAKES TEACHER ROLES FACILITATOR INDEPENDENT PARTICIPANT Other roles NEEDS ANALYST COUNSELOR GROUP PROCESS MANAGER TEXT- BASED ROLES OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS TASK-BASED REALIA PROCEDURE PRE- COMUNICATIVE ACTIVITIES STRUCTURAL and QUASI-COMMUNICATIVE ACT. COMMUNICATIVE ACTIVITIES FUNCTIONAL and SOCIAL INTERACTION ACT.
HUMANISTIC APPROACHES 1970/1980 INTEREST IN LOWERING STUDENT´S AFFECTIVE FILTER COMMUNITY LEARNING CH. CURRAN SUGGESTOPEDIA LOZANOV THE SILENT WAY CALEB GATTEGNO TOTAL PHYSICAL RESPONSE (TPR) JAMES ASHER STUDENTS WHOLE PERSONS TEACHERS CONSIDER NOT ONLY THEIR INTELLECT BUT ALSO THEIR FEELINGS, PHYSICAL REACTIONS AND DESIRE TO LEARN PHYSICAL SURROUNDINGS AND CLASSROOM ATMOSPHERE ARE OF VITAL IMPORTANCE. TEACHERS TRY TO “DESUGGEST” STUDENT´S PSYCHOLOGICAL BARRIERS. FINE ARTS PROVIDE “POSITIVE SUGGESTIONS” TO STUDENTS. LEARNING TAKES PLACE WHEN STUDENTS DISCOVER AND CREATE LANGUAGE. TEACHER RARELY ENTERS IN CONVERSATION WITH STUDENTS. STUDENTS INTERACT WITH PHYSICAL OBJECT (CUISENAIRE RODS) SELF-CORRECTION. NO ASSIGNMENTS. NO FORMAL TESTS. STUDENTS RESPOND PHYSICALLY TO THE LANGUAGE THEY HEAR. TEACHERS SHOULD BE TOLERANT. ERRORS SHOULD BE CORRECTED IN AN UNOBSTRUSIVE WAY. FINE DETAILS OF LANGUAGE SHOULD BE DEVELOPED WHEN STUDENTS HAVE BECOME SOMEWHAT PROFICIENT.
COMMUNICATION : PRIMARY FUNCTION OF LANGUAGE LANGUAGE : vehicle for communicating MEANING and MESSAGES Emphasis is put on INPUT rather than practice. A LEARNER CAN BE TAUGHT BY GRAMMATICALLY UNORDERED MATERIAL
APPROACH THEORY of LANGUAGE IMPORTANCE OF MEANING. ACQUISITION (unconscious) vs LEARNING (conscious) understanding messages THEORY OF LEARNING THE ACQUISITION/LEARNING THEORY Natural Way THE MONITOR HYPOTHESIS Time/ Focus on Form/ - COMPRENSIVE INPUT Knowledge of rules -VISUAL AIDS THE NATURAL ORDER HYPOTHESIS - FOCUS ON READING/ THE INPUT HYPOTHESIS WRITING THE AFFECTIVE FILTER HYPOTHESIS MOTIVATION - MEANINGFUL COMPREHENSION SELF-CONFIDENCE ANXIETY DESIGN OBJECTIVES : STUDENTS will be able to communicate with a native speaker read texts in target language (dictionary) know enough target language to continue to improve on their own won`t be able to pretend being a native speaker understand native speakers talking to each other use target language on the phone with great comfort participate in a conversation with native speakers on unfamiliar topics I + 1
SYLLABUS : VARIES ACCORDING TO STUDENTS´ NEEDS AND INTERESTS. TYPICAL GOALS BASIC PERSONAL COMMUNICATION SKILLS (ORAL) BASIC PERSONAL COMMUNICATION SKILLS (WRITTEN) ACADEMIC LEARNING SKILLS (ORAL) ACADEMIC LEARNING SKILLS (WRITTEN) TYPES OF LEARNING/TEACHING ACTIVITIES GRADUAL PROGRESSION OF ACTIVITIES ACQUISITION ACTIVITIES (meaningful commun.) PAIR WORK / COMMAND-BASED ACTIVITIES LEARNER ROLES PRE-PRODUCTION STAGE students do not have to respond in target language. EARLY PRODUCTION STAGE students respond either-or quest. / fill in charts. SPEECH EMERGENT PHASE students take part in role play, give opinions etc TEACHER ROLES Teacher is the primary source of comprehensive input Teacher creates friendly classroom atmosphere Teacher chooses classroom activities ROLES OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS Materials make activities meaningful Realia / Pictures Visual Aids Games PROCEDURE Techniques and activities from various method sources In all the activities, teachers maintain a constant FLOW OF COMPREHENSIBLE INPUT