3Acquisition-Learning Hypothesis Krashen’s Monitor Model proposed that only “acquisition” or subconsciously acquired knowledge leads to productive output; “learning,” the learner’s conscious knowledge of the rules of a language, only serves as a monitor.
5Affective Filter Hypothesis A hypothesis of the Monitor Model suggesting an affective filter can block access to language acquisition under certain conditions, such as when the learner is stressed or anxious.
7automatic processingIn an information-processing view, this occurs when a skill becomes practiced and can be carried out relatively rapidly and without conscious effort or short-term memory limitations.
13Comprehensible Input Hypothesis Monitor Model hypothesis stating that the most effective way to increase L2 competence is by exposure to “comprehensible input” (one level beyond the learner’s current level).
19Contrastive Analysis Hypothesis (CAH) In the strong form, this predicts that where there are similarities between the two languages, the learner will acquire L2 structures with ease; where there are differences, the learner will have difficulty.
37information-processing approach (or cognitive approach) Stemming from cognitive psychology, this approach emphasizes that the mental processes used for interpreting experience are also involved in the acquisition and use of a second language.
49Monitor ModelKrashen’s model of second language acquisition based on the concept that learners have two systems (acquisition and learning) and that the learned system acts as a monitor (editor) on the acquired system.
63parametersA small set of alternatives for a given grammatical feature, for example, whether a complement, such as a preposition (Prep), precedes or follows the main element (or the “head”), such as the Noun (N) of a noun phrase (Prep N or N Prep).
75zone of proximal development (ZPD) “The distance between the actual developmental level as determined by independent problem solving and the level of potential development as determined through problem solving under adult guidance … ’’ (Vygotsky, 1978, p. 86)