Presentation on theme: "Foregrounding Oral Communication"— Presentation transcript:
1 Foregrounding Oral Communication Chapter 6Foregrounding Oral Communication
2 Simultaneous First and Second Oral Development Bilingual children develop:Flexibility with metalinguistic conceptsEarly understanding of cultural normsAn understanding of signification systems (body language, prosody, gestural cues)
3 Simultaneous First and Second Oral Development Teachers should:Draw on student’s background knowledgeBe aware of potential conflicts with student’s previous schooling or home experiencesModel unfamiliar oral language responsesAllow for adequate wait timeScaffold instructionStrive for continuity between home & school
4 Developing Oral Communication in Sequential Language Acquisition Early language development with literacy as a goal involves oral practices based on meaningful uses of printed material:Question and answering routinesSharing time with booksStorytellingIllustrating stories and sharing themCreating gamesReciting poems/singingDramatization
5 Developing Oral Communication in Sequential Language Acquisition Practices with print prepares students to think and use language for learningEngagement in relevant and sustained oral practices is necessary in the classroomBe aware of interference from the first language, but realize that not all student will progress through the normal developmental pattern at the same pace.
6 Research demonstrates: Language as a ResourceResearch demonstrates:How language is used as social actionHow teacher’s oral interactions with her students need to be monitoredDistribution of turns, student recognition,sanctioning of behaviorsHow both the physical settings and the speakers’ backgrounds and influences have bearing on oral interactions
7 Language as a ResourceTeachers need to teach beginning second language learners how daily social interactions are affected by:frameparticipation structurepositioningparalinguistic elements
8 Classroom Language Learning Teachers should:Examine with their students the ways people communicate with each other and discuss the underlying values and attitudes.Help students recognize which language to use in different social situations and offer them alternatives for different audiences.
9 Subtractive Bilingualism Subtractive Bilingualism includes educational practices where:Children are often expected to give up their L1 in favor of their L2L1 is not viewed as an asset, lack of L2 viewed as a deficitTransfer benefits of L L2 not recognized
10 Second Language Acquisition Research Input hypothesisKrashen: comprehensible input = (i+1); Credits the learner’s subconscious processesInteractional hypothesisLong: active communicative efforts to understand and be understoodOutput hypothesisSwain: attempts at output allow learners to test hypotheses about L2 and progressively produce more accurate, coherent, conventionalized language
11 Second Language Acquisition Research Classroom-Based Research on Oral Communication DevelopmentFeedback: consider quantity, complexity, timing, learner understanding of its present or future need
12 Second Language Acquisition Research Input TheoriesLearnability theories - examine what kinds of learning in classroom settings best facilitate acquisition. They identify stages in learner development and types of tasks and interactionsProcessability theory – learner can only be taught a structure when he can manage its processing demands
13 Second Language Acquisition Research Output TheoriesThere are varied preferences in learning styles that help students process, store and retrieve information. Learning styles are affected by:affective levelsmodes of processing informationtypes of cognition
14 Second Language Acquisition Research Output TheoriesTeachers should:Offer a variety of activities geared towards different learning styles and multiple intelligencesTeach learning strategies (Chamot/O’Malley)
15 Fluency and Proficiency vs. Identity and Agency Planned Oral CommunicationIncorporate monologic communication – reading aloud, speeches, rehearsals; communication for a purposeStudents focus on organization, cohesion, performancePromote interaction where the cognitive processes used in the classroom setting will be comparable to the natural setting
16 Fluency Building: Error Correction Only correct features that can be reasonably managed at the learner’s level of proficiencyTailor error correction to the learner (checklists)Remember that the development of an internalized grammar system does not follow a linear path
17 Identity and Agency Building Genre Is Greater Than Its PartsEncourage learners to observe/collect information about L2 community and formulate questions about the culture/language use through:consciousness raisingproblem posing
18 Identity and Agency Building Genre Is Greater Than Its PartsTo help students gain the “big picture”, assign projects which:involve students affectivelypromote cognitive activities such as problem solvingrelate to subject matter in other classes
19 Identity and Agency Building Teacher’s FeedbackTeacher talk includes modifications teachers use to be comprehended by their students:repetition of instructionsspeaking at a slower ratepausingchanging pronunciationmodifying vocabulary, grammar or discourse
20 Identity and Agency Building Teacher’s FeedbackRespectfully scaffold student’s oral communication with:modelingrestatementclarificationquestioning
21 Identity and Agency Building Shifting between fluency & accuracyKnow the students strengths to move from:Silent participation with comprehensionProduction of chunks of oral languageComplex oral exchanges and presentations
22 Identity and Agency Building Shifting between fluency & accuracyTo build confidence in fluency, lessons need to foreground activities for negotiating meaning and shift to foregrounding accuracy by focusing on forms of expression.
23 Identity and Agency Building Shifting between fluency & accuracyIce-breakers allows students to use an oral routine or expression with their classmates under low-risk conditions. Use them:To get to know each otherTo review previous materialTo preview new materialTo introduce new material inductively or deductively
24 Differences Between Second and Foreign Language Learners Social and Academic Consequences of Sounding Like the “Other”Challenges of second language learners:Lack of social acceptance due to an L1 that is stigmatized by the mainstreamAlienation from their culturally distinct heritage group
25 Differences Between Second and Foreign Language Learners Discontinuities in SchoolingLimited communication between schools results in lack of continuity in learning (“repeat beginners”)Heritage language learners sometimes:have little formal study in their L1must strive for academic success by adopting cultural practices at odds with their home/community environmenthave been in programs where memorization is stressed, rather than application and performance
26 Going Beyond the National Standards Basic TESOL standards:presentationalinterpersonalinterpretiveCritical Language Awareness – build up the learner’s awareness of the significant role language plays in social/school life.Build connections between classwork and the wider social/political world.