Presentation on theme: "Stages of Second Language Acquisition"— Presentation transcript:
1 Stages of Second Language Acquisition Silent and Receptive StageEarly ProductionSpeech EmergenceIntermediate FluencyAdvanced Fluency
2 Silent and Receptive Stage Students do not verbally respond to communication in the second languagealthough there is receptive processing. Students should be actively includedin all class activities, but not forced to speak. Students are likely to respondnon-verbally to peer-buddies during inclusion in many activities: interactionwith visuals and audiovisuals, games, and hands-on projects. As studentsprogress through this stage, they will begin to participate using gestures andpointing, and they may begin to provide one-word verbal responses.Characteristics:Students:are often verbally unresponsiveare often hesitant and unsuremay use one word responsesare developing listening skillsneed time to be comfortable withclassroom environment, procedures,and activitiesrespond non-verbally by pointing,nodding, gesturing, or drawingLearning Tasks:listendrawpointselectmovechoosemimeact/act outmatchcircle
3 Silent and Receptive Stage (continued) Strategies:Teachers need to:encourage listening and notforce speakingslow speech and emphasize keywordsmodel and demonstrate activitiesuse visual aids, pictures,graphic organizers, realiause gestures and body languageuse multimedia aids to illustrateconceptsmodify work by amount, time,and contentAssessing Comprehension:Show me theDraw aPoint to examples ofCan you draw the parts of ?Show what would happen ifMove (object/to place) if you agree
4 Early Production Stage Students in this stage begin to respond verbally using one or two words. Students begin to develop the ability to understand words often repeated in a familiar context. Students begin to develop listening skills and build their passive and receptive (listening) vocabulary. They may begin to group two and three words together in a short phrase to respond to a question or express an idea.Characteristics:Students:relate words to their environmentbegin to grasp main ideas of messagebegin to focus on contextual cuesuse routine expressions independentlydemonstrate improved comprehensionmispronounce words (no need forcorrection)will repeat, or recite, memorablelanguagewill use one or two word responses;advancing to two or three wordsmay not tell you if they do notunderstandLearning Tasks:namelistlabelcategorizegrouptell/sayrespondchantdiscriminateanswer
5 Early Production Stage (continued) Strategies:Teachers need to:use cooperative learning and scaffoldingtechniquesask yes/no and directed choicequestionsask Who, What, and Where questionsask listing type questionsuse think-pair-share technique whenasking questions of the classallow students to illustrate knowledgeuse labeling and diagramming inillustrationsmodify work by amount, time,and contentAssessing Comprehension:where is the ?draw and label theshow me how you knowshow how you would sortpredict (tell) what comesnextwhy did ________ choose ?
6 Speech Emergence Stage Students in this stage begin to respond in simple sentences when they arecomfortable in the setting and engaged in activities they understand.Instruction should be focused on strategies that ensure comprehensibleinput. All interactions with students in this stage should be focused oncommunication rather than form. Teachers and other students shouldencourage and be receptive to all attempts to communicate (gestures,attentiveness, following directions, any oral participation). Teachers andstudents should model correct usage in all communication, but not correcterrors.Characteristics:Students:begin to speak in simple sentencesdemonstrate expanded vocabularyshow improved comprehensionmay ask for clarification or meaningparticipate in small group discussionsmay rely on native language tocommunicate complex ideasstart to acquire basic communication skillsand social languagemay not tell you if they do notunderstandLearning Tasks:listendrawpointselectmovechoosemimeact/act outmatchcircle
7 Speech Emergence Stage (continued) Strategies:Teachers need to:use cooperative grouping for instructionencourage efforts to participateask How and What type questionsemphasize content area vocabularyprovide picture rich content area text,trade books, and magazines at studentlevelprovide frequent opportunities to useEnglishprovide opportunities for participationin early reading and writing activitiesmodify work according toindividual needAssessing Comprehension:can you recall ?can you explain what ishappening ?how would you use ?how would you organize ?what would happen if ?what choice would you havemade ?
8 Intermediate Fluency Stage Students in this stage gradually make the transition to more elaborate speech.With continued comprehensible input and communication-focused interactions,students may begin to link familiar phrases and generate sentences to expresstheir ideas. Teachers need to continually model language usage, extend receptivevocabulary, and provide frequent opportunities for students to produce languagein comfortable situations.Characteristics:Students:begin to speak in more complex sentencesmay use incorrect grammar and verbformsparticipate more often in large groupsneed context clues in content areainstructionexhibit greater vocabulary developmentbegin to think in the new languageinstead of translating from the nativelanguageLearning Tasks:summarizeclassifyrestateextendcontrastevaluatepredictsupportcreateexamine
9 Intermediate Fluency Stage (continued) Strategies:Teachers need to:provide visually rich content instructiondesign content activities that focus onspeech production, not grammaticalformhave students take on larger roles incooperative group activitiesprovide extra time or modifyassignmentsintroduce colloquialisms and idiomsAssessing Comprehension:how would you describe ?which statements support ?what questions would you askabout ?what is the relationshipbetween ?can you predict the outcomeif ?compare and contrast the
10 Advanced Fluency Stage Students in this stage begin to engage in non-cued conversation and to speakfluently using social and academic language. It is appropriate to begin to directstudents’ attention on grammar, idiomatic expressions, and reading comprehensionskills. Activities should be designed to develop skills in higher order thinking,vocabulary development, and cognitive processing. Students in this stage needdeliberate instruction on reading and writing skills and frequent opportunities topractice them.Characteristics:Students:can interact extensively with nativespeakersmake few grammatical errorsparticipate in English literacy programshigh levels of comprehension but may notunderstand all of the academic languageread and write for a variety of purposescontinue to need extensive vocabularydevelopment in the content areasLearning Tasks:constructconcludehypothesizeinfluencejustifypersuadeanalyzedebatedefendelaborate
11 Advanced Fluency Stage (continued) Strategies:Teachers need to:emphasize content area vocabularybegin to provide grammar instructionfocus on reading and writing skillshave students take on advancedcooperative learning roles (note-taker,reporter)continue to support content areainstruction with visuals, realia, andactive learning strategiesAssessing Comprehension:how would you explain ?will you interpret in your ownwords ?what other way would you . . ?what ideas justify ?can you think of an original wayfor ?what would you cite todefend ?