2Does the learner already know a language? Is the learner cognitively mature?How well developed is the learner’s metalinguistic awareness?How extensive is the learner’s general knowledge of the world?Is the learner nervous about making mistakes and sounding ‘silly’ when speaking the language?Does the learning environment allow the learner to be silent in the arely stages of learning, or is s/he expected to speak from the beginning?
3Is there plenty of time available for language learning to take place, planty of contact with proficient speakers of the language?Does the learner receive corrective feedback when s/he makes error in grammar or pronunciation, or does the listener overlook these errors and pay attention to the message?Does the learner receive corrective feedback when s/he uses the wrong word, or does the listener usually try to guess the intended meaning?Is the learner exposed to language which is at an appropriate level of difficulty in terms of speed of delivery, complexity of grammatical structure, and vocabulary?
4Learners characteristics L1 LEARNERno cognitive maturity no metalinguistic awareness no world knowledgeL2 LEARNERacquired one language idea of language work incorrect guesses about the L1
5YOUNG L2 LEARNERScognitive maturity metalinguistic awareness (age) nervousnessCHILDRENnervousness not well developed speaking skills happy chats silent participation in social interaction not pressure to speak
6LEARNING CONDITIONSYOUNG LEARNERSOLD LEARNERSsilencesilencelarge amount of time of language expositionlimited amount of time
7MODIFIED INPUTFIRST LANGUAGESECOND LANGUAGEcaretaker talkforeigner / teacher talkcorrections of meaning / word choiceerrors – no interference with meaningcorrection- when there’s a misunderstandingcorrection - classroom
8learning = habit formation BEHAVIOURISMlearning = habit formationlinguistic input + environment & reinforcementerrors = L1 interferenceContrastive Analysis Hypothesis (CAH)L1 influenceLearner’s errors are not predictable on the basis of CAHerrors are bi-directionalCAH – similarities make the learning process easy; differences, difficult.Errors are bidirectional : the dogs it. The dogs eats the cookie. Le chian mange le biscuit. Le chian le mange. The dog it eat it- le chian mange le.Learner intuitions towards possible transfer
9COGNITIVE THEORYSLA – knowledge build-up - automatically for speaking & understandingattention to any language feature – understand or producelearners’ experience & practice – quick automaticity (no awareness)restructuring – assimilation + accomodation: burst of progress or back-slidingno prediction about the L1 structure transfer
10CREATIVE CONSTRUCTION THEORY internal representations of language – predictable stagesacquisition happens as the learners read or hear –outocomes: speech & writingcommunicative situations - usefulness
11KRASHEN’S MONITOR MODEL the acquisition-learning Hypothesis: ACQUISITION LEARNINGthe monitor hypothesis: the ACQUIRED system the LEARNED systemconditions: sufficient time, focus on form, knowledge of rulesweak point: no possibilities for differentiating acquisition from learning
12the natural order hypothesis – predictable sequencial acquisition rulesthe input hypothesis – comprehensible inputthe affective filter hypothesis – UP / DOWN: motives, needs, attitudes, emotional statesWeak point: difficulties for assuring what affective factors cause the differences. SUCCESS = more positive motivation (a low affective filter)
13INTERACTIONIST VIEWmodified inputinteractional modification makes input comprehensiblecomprehesible input promotes acquisitioninteractional modification promotes acquisitionnative speech modifications when talking to non-native:comprehension checksclarification requestsself-repetition or paraphrase