2BICS and CALP What are they? Teachers of ELLs must know these two types of language.Basic Interpersonal Communicative Skills (BICS)Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency (CALP)
3Methods and Approaches to TESOL Current Approaches in Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages emphasize the following:Language is functional and it is best acquired through meaningful use and interaction;Language learning is culture-based, and therefore teaching a language must include the values, norms, and beliefs appropriate to the language;Language learning is an ongoing process. It is affected by the background of the student and progresses at varying rates;Language modes (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) develop interdependently. Students need learning environments that provide opportunities to practice and develop these skills.
4Integration of Language and Content: Language used to be taught in isolation. This meant that teachers used to teach grammatical rules, vocabularies, etc. as separate lessons. Learners used to be asked to memorize rules and vocabulary lists which were meaningless and had no relevance to the students’ lives. Now teachers are asked to teach English through meaningful materials and lessons important to the learners’ academic development.
5Content ESL and Sheltered Content Teaching: This is an effective method when delivered by a trained teacher. This teacher should have a good understanding of the content objectives as well as how people learn another language. The teacher delivers the content lesson plan using linguistically and culturally sensitive and effective techniques. The atmosphere of the classroom is non- threatening, natural, and motivating. The teacher includes visual aids, hands-on activities, modification of speech, and experiments in science and math.
6Content ESL and Sheltered Content Teaching: Meaning is conveyed with the help of gestures, body language, demonstrations in addition to the strategies mentioned above. Teachers repeat, paraphrase, enunciate their words clearly, control the use of idioms and select their vocabulary very carefully. Students have access to the curriculum and learn English at the same time.
7Whole Language:It is believed that learners could benefit a great deal if they are taught a second language (both oral and written) the same way people learn their first language. This particular approach focuses on meaning, introducing the written form of the language early on, and accepting inventive spelling in the early stages of language acquisition.
8Whole Language, contStudents are also exposed to different authentic written materials and diverse high-quality literature. Teachers focus on the meaning of language and when students are ready, parts of language are then introduced.
9Whole Language, contSocial interaction between students as well as their teacher is extremely important. They are all believed to be partners in the learning process. Students’ prior knowledge, cultural, and linguistic experiences are considered very valuable in the classroom. Teachers are encouraged to emphasize fluency over accuracy.
10Whole Language, cont Strategies: Create an interactive classroom in which students are placed carefully with partners and groups. Emphasis on the importance of listening and speaking.Avoid using isolated phonics’ drill. ELLs seem to learn more through practical use of the language as opposed to focusing on isolated sounds. Do prepare activities that target areas of difficulty, though.Academic skills like reading and writing are emphasized with the understanding that they take time to fully develop.
11CALLACognitive Academic Language Learning Approach (CALLA). this approach is very beneficial to language learners especially those who are in upper elementary and secondary schools. Students’ knowledge of the English language should be either intermediate or advanced in order to benefit from this approach.
12Interactive Classrooms Interactive Classrooms are the most effective classrooms for learning a second language. Students learn a great deal when they interact with their peers and their teachers. Cooperative learning helps them develop social skills as well as linguistic and academic skills.
13Language Experience Approach LEA is used as a reading and speaking activity. Teachers facilitate an experience (field trip for example) and allow ELLs to dictate to the teacher in their own words what they did, saw, learned, etc. The teacher writes the student’s story and then uses it as reading material for that student. It is recommended that the teacher does not make major changes to the story. Why does this work? When students read about a known event and the language used is recognizable, they identify the words much easier. This helps them develop a familiarity with the written aspect of their new language much faster than reading material with which they are not familiar.
14TOTAL PHYSICAL RESPONSE: TPR it is a technique with which teachers introduce functional language to ELLs who are beginners. The teacher models a behavior or action and commands the students to perform the same or similar action.This technique is great for beginners but not intermediate or advanced students. Nonetheless, this continues to be effective whenever it is possible to represent an idea, thought, or behavior through action.
15Varying our approaches and strategies is key in reaching ELLs Varying our approaches and strategies is key in reaching ELLs. They are different and they have different needs, abilities,