2The behaviorist viewL2 learning consists above all in overcoming the differences between L1 and L2.Positive transfer: L1 habits are helpful to acquiring L2(e.g. understanding similar words such as pilot, hamburger)Negative transfer: L1 habits hinder the acquiring L2, so called interference(e.g. I have 15 years. She is living here for two months.)Importance of habit formation (drill and repetitive activities) and imitation.
3Stephen Krashen: Monitor Model one of the most influential and widely discussed models of second language learning in recent yearsalso called the Acquisition-Learning Hypothesis or the Input Hypothesisdescribes five interrelated hypotheses
4The acquisition/learning distinction Adults have two independent but interrelated systems for gaining ability in another language: acquisition and learning.• Acquisition: intuitive and takes place subconsciously in situations where speakers communicate naturally; it is similar to the process used by children to “pick up” language; speakers are more concerned with the use of language to convey meaning than with correct usage.• Learning: takes place consciously; learners focus on form, figure out rules and are generally aware of their own process; it is helped greatly by error correction and presentation of explicit rules
5The monitor hypothesis the monitor - a “device” for checking our language outputadults should strive for optimal monitor use so that their conscious knowledge of language does not interfere with communication
6The input hypothesis• we acquire language only when we are exposed to comprehensible input• comprehensible input - language that contains forms and structures just beyond the learner’s current level of competence• the language learners are exposed to should be just far enough beyond their current competence that they can understand most of it but still be challenged to make progress• speaking fluency cannot be taught directly, but rather emerges naturally over time
7The affective filter hypothesis • comprehensible input can have its effect only when affective conditions are optimal: the acquirer is motivated, has self-confidence, good self-image and a low anxiety level• if the affective filter is high, comprehensible input cannot get in
8Task: teachers’ use of L1 and L2 To what extent do you agree with the following statements?If the teacher is worried about the class understanding his instructions or explanation, he can ask a student to translate what he has said to others.Instructions should be given in both languages – L2 first.Students should be allowed to ask the teacher in L2 if they may say something in their own language. All other use of L1 is prohibited.L1 should be used as little as possible.
9CommentaryIf the teacher is worried about the class understanding his instructions or explanation, he can ask a student to translate what he has said to others.→ good practice in translation, not always the same pupils→ teachers should try to find alternative ways of making themselves clear, learners do not always understand after first hearing→ encourage guessing of meaningInstructions should be given in both languages – L2 first.→ may help learners get used to instructions in L1 (a useful temporary ‘crutch’)→ if done repeatedly – pupils may ‘switch off’
10CommentaryStudents should be allowed to ask the teacher in L2 if they may say something in their own language. All other use of L1 is prohibited.→ could work well with older learners, little children may feel stressedL1 should be used as little as possible.→ generally true: teachers tend to start with high ambitions (only L2), end up speaking too much L1→ L1 should be used:when there is an obvious breakdown in communicationfor complicated instructions (e.g. for a new game)for discussing grammar