Presentation on theme: "Chapter 3: The Direct Method"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 3: The Direct Method Textbook:Larsen-Freeman, D. (2000). Techniques and Principles in Language Teaching. (2th ed.). Oxford University Press.
2 Introduction to the Direct Method 1.The instructional goal is learning how to use a foreign language to communicate.2.The basic rule is that meaning is to be conveyed directly in the target language through the use of demonstration and visual aids. In other words, no translation is allowed in the classroom.
3 The Direct Method in the classroom-1 1.The teacher places a big map of the united States in the front of the classroom.►Visual aid
4 The Direct Method in the classroom-2 2.At the beginning of the class, the teacher asks students to read aloud a passage about the United States geography first and he points to a part of the map after each sentence is read.► Reading skill will be developed through the practice with speaking.►Visual aid
5 The Direct Method in the classroom-3 3.Then the teacher uses the target language to ask students if they have any question. If the students have some, they are asked to use the target language to ask the teacher, too.►The native language is prohibited.
6 The Direct Method in the classroom-4 4.The teacher answers the students’ questions by drawing on the blackboard or giving examples.►No explanation & translation
7 The Direct Method in the classroom-5 5.The teacher asks questions about the map in the target language and the students are asked to reply in a full sentence in the target language, too.►Ask students to think in the target language as quickly as possible.
8 The Direct Method in the classroom-6 6.The teacher encourages his students to ask questions about the map.►Communication
9 The Direct Method in the classroom-7 7.The teacher will work with students on their wrong pronunciation, and he will also help them to correct grammar errors by asking them questions to let them choose.►Self-correction
10 The Direct Method in the classroom-8 8.The students are asked to practice using prepositions in the lesson by filling in blanks because the teacher won’t directly teach explicit grammar rules to them.►Grammar be taught inductively.
11 The Direct Method in the classroom-9 9.In order to develop students’ writing abilities, the teacher dictates a paragraph about the geography of the United States.►Writing is an important skill.
12 The Direct Method in the classroom-10 10.All of the lessons of the week involve the geography of the United States.►Syllabus focus on situations or topics.
13 The Direct Method in the classroom-11 11.A proverb is used to discuss in the classroom in order to help students learn how speakers of that language live.►Learning culture
14 The Principles -1 What are the goals of the Direct Method? ► to communicate in the target language► to think in the target language
15 The Principles -2What are the roles between the teacher and the students?► Partners► Students are more active (than GTM)
16 The Principles -3What are some characteristics of teaching/learning process?► Demonstrate the meaning by using realia, pictures, or gesture (no explain or translate)► the syllabus is based on situations or topics. ( as if students were in real situations)► Grammar is taught inductively, no explicit grammar.
17 The Principles -4How is language viewed? How is culture viewed?► Language is primarily spoken, not written. (common speech/everyday speech)► Culture consists of history, geography ,and the daily lives
18 The Principles -5 ► Vocabulary is emphasized over grammar. What areas of language are emphasized?► Vocabulary is emphasized over grammar.► Oral communication → reading → writing► Pronunciation receives attention at beginning
19 The Principles -6 What is the role of the students’ native language? ► Native language is not allowed.
20 The Principles -7 How does the teacher respond to students’ errors? ► try to get students to self-correct.
21 The techniques -1 Reading aloud ► Students take turns reading. At the end of each student’s turn, the teacher uses gestures, pictures, realia, examples, or other means to make the meaning clear.
22 The techniques -2 ►only in target language Question and answer exercise►only in target language► Students ask questions and answer in full sentences
23 The techniques -3 Getting students to self-correct ► by asking them to make a choice► using a questioning voice► stopping before the error
24 The techniques -4 Conversation practice ► Teacher asks students some questions in the target language► questions contained a particular grammar strucure (T→S; S→S)
25 The techniques -5 Fill-in-the-blank exercise ► all the items are in the target language► no explicit grammar rules would be applied
26 The techniques -6 ► Teacher reads the passage 3 times ► normal speed Dictation► Teacher reads the passage 3 times► normal speed► phrase by phrase with pausing long► normal speed again