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Chapter 11 The Late Middle Ages: Crisis and Disintegration in the Fourteenth Century.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 11 The Late Middle Ages: Crisis and Disintegration in the Fourteenth Century."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 11 The Late Middle Ages: Crisis and Disintegration in the Fourteenth Century

2 Time of Troubles: Black Death and Social Crisis Famine and Population Black Death Economic / Social Upheaval War and Political Instability Hundred years War Political Instability Growth of England’s Political Institutions The French Problem Decline of the Church Boniface VIII Papacy at Avignon The Schism Cultural World of the 14 th Century Vernacular Language Art and Black Death Society in the Age of Adversity Urban Life Medicine Inventions

3 A Time of Troubles: Black Death & Social Crisis Famine and Population Heavy rain (1315 – 1317) “Little Ice Age” Population growth Famine

4 The Black Death Types: Bubonic Pneumonic Septicemic Two ways to transmit: Rats and Fleas devastating natural disaster Spread of the Plague Originated in Asia Mongols Arrived in Europe in 1347 Mortality reached 50 – 60 percent in some areas Wiped out between 25 – 50 percent of European population (19 – 38 million dead in four years) Cities: 50-60% wiped out Plague returns in 1361 – 1362 and 1369

5 Life and Death: Reactions to the Plague Plague as a punishment from God The flagellants Attacks against Jews Italy was hardest hit by plague. Results in life being treated as cheap and passing

6 Economic Dislocation and Social Upheaval Population collapse Labor Shortage Cost of labor that remained – Went up Agricultural product prices Labor Shortage + Falling prices for agricultural products = Drop in aristocratic incomes Statute of Laborers (1351) Social Mobility Government increased taxes Peasant Revolts Jacquerie in France (1358) English Peasants’ Revolt (1381) Revolts in the Cities Ciompi Revolt in Florence (1378)

7 Causes HUNDRED YEARS WAR Entanglement of French and English royal families King Edward III (1327 – 1377) French seize duchy of Gascony (1337) Conduct and Course of the War Differences in the armies Battle of Crecy (1346) Henry V (1413 – 1422) Battle of Agincourt (1415)

8 Charles the Dauphin (heir to the French throne) Joan of Arc (1412 – 1431)

9 Political Instability Control over the bureaucracies led to internal conflicts (continuation) Breakdown of Feudal Institutions Scutage: Factionalism – between Nobles. Looked for ways to supplant lost income from rents and lands New Royal Dynasties One problem was male heirs Financial Problems Parliaments gain power – and rivaled the monarchs

10 The Growth of England’s Political Institutions Edward III (1327 – 1377) Parliament – power increased dramatically Richard II (1377 – 1399) Aristocratic factionalism Henry IV (1399 – 1413) Deposed Richard II

11 The Problems of the French, German and Italians Weakness of the French Monarchy Depopulated No money Desolate lands Estates-General 1357 meeting Charles VI (1380 – 1422) CRAZY KING The French Kings

12 The Decline of the Church Papacy reached peak of power in 13 th century Secular monarchies began to rival the religious and came into conflict with church Claims of supremacy and led to conflict and eventual papacy defeat  This defeat, in turn, raised question of Pope’s temporal authority over Christendom and over spiritual as well. Boniface VIII and the Conflict with the State Boniface VIII (1294 – 1303) Conflict with ‘Philip the Fair’ of France (Philip IV) Unam Sanctam (1302) French pope  Clement V (1305 – 1314)

13 The Papacy at Avignon (1305 – 1378) decline in papal prestige Popes became captive of the French monarchy for over 70 years 134 new cardinals and 113 were French new taxes imposed with threats of excommunication wealth and lifestyles of the popes at Avignon. Pope Gregory XI returned to Italy … and then died.

14 The Great Schism Papacy returns to Rome in 1378 (Gregory XI) TWO POPES The Great Schism divides Europe France, Spain, Scotland, Southern Italy supported Clement. England, Germany, Scandinavia, most of Italy supported Urban Conciliarism Council of Pisa (1409) Council of Constance (1414 – 1418) End of the Schism

15 Vernacular literature – oral language to words Latin was still official Dante (1265 – 1321) The Divine Comedy Petrarch (1304 – 1374) Sonnets Boccaccio (1313 – 1375) Decameron Chaucer (c – 1400) The Canterbury Tales Cultural World of the 14 th Century Art and the Black Death Giotto (1266 – 1337) Morbidity of late fourteenth-century art

16 Society in the Age of Adversity Changes in Urban Life Greater Regulation – Marriage – Gender Roles – Male: Women: Nuclear family ensconced New Directions in Medicine Hierarchy Trends Inventions and New Patterns The mechanical clock New conception of time Gunpowder and cannons


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