Presentation on theme: "Chapter 11 The Late Middle Ages:"— Presentation transcript:
1Chapter 11 The Late Middle Ages: Crisis and Disintegration in the Fourteenth Century
2An enigmatic era Medieval crises precipitate the Renaissance Forces driving this change:WarPlague“Infidel” Invasion by Mongols and Ottoman TurksReligions SchismThis opens door for…Centralized “New Monarchies”Higher living standardsSecular cultureReligious Reform
3Medieval Developments to 1340 Feudalism sets stage for larger-scale government, protection of rights and duty to stateAgricultural advancements – population thrives!Expansion and bureaucratization of the Church preserves aspects of Classical learning, provides order, and establishes universities/institutions of advanced learningCrusades allow for contact and exchange with Byzantine and Arab worldsThe end result was an advanced civilization that fused Greco-Roman traditions with Christian, Germanic, Arabic and Byzantine elements to surpass other regions in the world at the time
4Threats to the Medieval World Mongol invasions of Russia in 1240Ottoman Turks overtake Constantinople 1453Papal scandalChurch fragmented by ProtestantismFour Horsemen of the Apocalypse: Plague, War, Famine, DeathIn the end, the forces that challenged the medieval world were secular ones
5The Black Death: A Recipe for Plague “Little Ice Age”The Great Famine (1315 – 1317)Inability to sustain growing population with agricultural methods used at the timeUpheaval to urban areas
6The Black Death Most devastating natural disaster in European History Bubonic PlagueRats and Fleas? Perhaps not!Pneumonic causes?Yersinia pestisArrived in Europe in 1347Mortality reached 50 – 60 percent in some areasWiped out between 25 – 50 percent of European population (19 – 38 million dead in four years)Plague returns in 1361 – 1362 and 1369
11Economic Dislocation and Social Upheaval Labor Shortage + Falling prices for agricultural products = Drop in aristocratic incomesEnglish Statute of Laborers (1351) : Limit WagesSocial MobilityPeasant RevoltsJacquerie in France (1358)English Peasants’ Revolt (1381)Revolts in the CitiesCiompi Revolt in Florence (1378)Jacquerie, 1358
12War and Political Instability The Hundred Years’ WarFrench Attack on English Gascony (1337)Edward III of England claims French CrownDifferences in the armiesBattle of Crecy (1346)Henry V (1413 – 1422)Battle of Agincourt (1415)Charles the Dauphin (heir to the French throne)Joan of Arc (1412 – 1431)Siege of OrleansCaptured by allies of the English in 1430Burned at the Stake (1431)GunpowderWar Ends with French victory (1453)
14Political Instability Breakdown of Feudal InstitutionsAttempts at political centralizationScutage: “buy out” of military serviceNew Royal DynastiesProblems of successionChallenge of noble familiesFinancial ProblemsParliaments gain powerOngoing war creates need to tax
15Western Europe: England and France Edward III (1327 – 1377) and the development of parliamentHouse of LordsHouse of CommonsWars of the Roses (York vs. Lancaster)FranceEstates General - MarcelTaxation: gabelle, tailleMadness of Charles VI (1380 – 1422)Civil War: Burgundy vs. OrleansHenry IV of England
16Golden Bull of Charles IV Germany & ItalyThe German MonarchyBreakup of the Holy Roman Empire post-HohenstaufenHundreds of StatesElective MonarchyThe Golden Bull (1356)Weak kingsThe States of ItalyLack of centralized authorityRepublicanism to TyrannyOutside controlDevelopment of regional statesMilanFlorenceVeniceGolden Bull of Charles IV
17The Decline of the Church Boniface VIII and the Conflict with the StateBoniface VIII (1294 – 1303)Conflict with Philip IV (the Fair) of FranceUnam Sanctam (1302)Captured by French – is eventually released but then diesClement V, a French pope!The Papacy at Avignon (1305 – 1378) “Babylonian Captivity”Stay at Avignon leads to a decline in papal prestigeCaptives of the French monarchyNew Sources of revenueCatherine of Siena (c – 1380)HissBooPlease, Greg! Come home!
18Palace and Bridge at Avignon – The City of the Popes
19Urban VI and Clement VII The Great SchismI don’t think so…Papacy returns to Rome in 1378Rival Popes electedPope Urban VIPope Clement VIIThe Great Schism divides EuropeCouncil of Pisa (1409)Deposed both popes and elected a new popePopes refuse to step downResults in three popes!Council of Constance (1414 – 1418)End of the SchismCondemnation of heretics Jan Hus, John WyclifePope Martin V (1417 – 1431) electedI’m da Pope!Urban VI and Clement VIII win.
20Changes for the Church End of conciliarism Lay Piety and Mysticism Council of Basel 1449 ends itPaves way for “Renaissance Papacy”Popes behaving badly…Patronage of art/cultureLay Piety and MysticismPreoccupation with salvation after plague and warPurgatory and indulgencesMeister Eckhart, Johannes Tauler, Gerhard GrooteFemale mystics – Catherine, Hildegard, BeguinesNominalism and the challenge to theology and scholasticismAquinas vs. Occam
21Culture and Society in an Age of Adversity The Developments of Vernacular LiteratureDante Alighieri (1265 – 1321)The Divine Comedy (1313 – 1321)Geoffrey Chaucer (c – 1400)The Canterbury TalesChristine de Pizan (c – 1400)The Book of the City of Ladies (1404)BoccaccioDecameronArt and the Black DeathGiotto (1266 – 1337)Ars Moriendi illustrations
22Culture and Society in an Age of Adversity Cimabue, Duccio, Giotto: from Byzantine to Renaissance style
23Change & Invention Changes in Urban Life Medicine Greater Regulation – PROSTITUTION! (woohoo!)MarriageGender RolesMen: Active and DomineeringWomen: Passive and SubmissiveMedicineMedical schools---Salerno, Montpellier, Bologna, Oxford, Padua, and Paris.Midwives, barber-surgeonsInventions and New PatternsThe Mechanical Clock (Di Dondi)New Conception of TimeGunpowderTemperamental, but utilized (James II’s “Lion”)Bell tower in Siena
24Mechanical Clock in the Prague Town Hall “One sound rose ceaselessly above the noises of busy life, and lifted all things unto a sphere of order and serenity: the sound of bells“-John Huizinga, The Waning of the Middle Ages
25Discussion QuestionsWhat impact did the Black Death have on medieval European society?What were the causes of the Hundred Years’ War?Who was Joan of Arc and what role did she play in the Hundred Years’ War?How did the Hundred Years’ War impact the relations between the English King and his Parliament?Why did the stay at Avignon lead to a decline in papal prestige?How was the Great Schism finally ended?How did Dante, Chaucer and Christine de Pisan reflect the values of their respective societies?How did the Black Death affect urban and family life?
26Web Links ORB – Online Reference Book for Medieval Studies The End of Europe’s Middle AgesThe Black Death, 1347 – 1350Medieval Dance of DeathDe Re Militari – Society for Medieval Military HistoryThe Age of King Charles VThe World of DanteGeoffrey Chaucer