Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Assessment and Intervention Strategies for Teachers PROBLEM BEHAVIOR IN THE CLASSROOM Abby Twyman, M.Ed., BCBA, LBA Director of Behavioral Services.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Assessment and Intervention Strategies for Teachers PROBLEM BEHAVIOR IN THE CLASSROOM Abby Twyman, M.Ed., BCBA, LBA Director of Behavioral Services."— Presentation transcript:

1 Assessment and Intervention Strategies for Teachers PROBLEM BEHAVIOR IN THE CLASSROOM Abby Twyman, M.Ed., BCBA, LBA Director of Behavioral Services

2 Who am I and what do I do? Who are you and what do you do? Today were going to be learning: Basic principles of behavior How to assess behavior problems How to identify the function of problem behavior How to intervene when the function is ACCESS (Day 1) or ESCAPE (Day 2) Behavioral expectations of participants: Ask questions Be respectful Create connections Discuss ideas INTRODUCTION

3 Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) is the science of learning All learning happens through a 3-term contingency ABCs of learning A = Antecedent: the instruction or environmental cue B = Behavior: the response to the antecedent C = Consequence: the result of the behavior The consequence following the behavior either makes the behavior more likely or less likely to occur again If the consequence is good then the behavior is likely to happen again; this is called REINFORCEMENT If the consequence is bad then the behavior is not likely to happen again; this is called PUNISHMENT BASIC PRINCIPLES OF BEHAVIOR

4 Whether a consequence is REINFORCING or PUNISHING is in the eye of the beholder Consider these examples: John leaves the toilet paper roll empty. The next time Jane goes into the bathroom she changes the roll, yells at John about how inconsiderate he is and then gives him the silent treatment. Paula did not study for her spelling test. As the spelling test is about to start she pushes Nick and calls him a mean name. Mrs. Twyman sends Paula to the office to speak with the principal. Zeke wants the basketball that Jordan is using. He runs up to Jordan, grabs the ball, pushes him and runs away. The recess teacher makes Zeke apologize for pushing, then lets him go play basketball. Discuss: What did each person receive as a consequence of their behavior? Will the behavior happen again? BASIC PRINCIPLES OF BEHAVIOR

5 Behavior is more likely to occur if it is REINFORCED Reinforcement comes in 2 forms: Positive and Negative Positive reinforcement is when the person receives something desirable as a consequence for their behavior (ACCESS) Negative reinforcement is when the person avoids something undesirable as a consequence for their behavior (ESCAPE) Discuss: In the classroom, what examples can you think of related to positive and negative reinforcement? BASIC PRINCIPLES OF BEHAVIOR

6 ACCESS or ESCAPE can either be direct or socially-mediated Direct Access Open up the cabinet to gain access to the chips Socially-Mediated Access Ask mom for some chips and she gets them out of the cabinet Direct Escape Walk out of the room when its too loud Socially-Mediated Escape Tell the teacher its too loud and the teacher instructs students to talk quietly In the classroom we are usually seeing problem behaviors which are SMA or SME, so our discussion will focus on these BASIC PRINCIPLES OF BEHAVIOR

7 Motivating Operations are environmental events which alter the reinforcing or punishing effectiveness of consequences Motivating Operations can be divided into two types Establishing operations (EO) – value of an outcome is increased Abolishing operations (AO) – value of an outcome is decreased An example of this related to behavior to gain access to toys EO: A student will be more motivated to engage in behavior related to gaining access to toys when they have not had access to the toys in a while and if there are not a lot of toys available AO: A student will be less motivated to engage in behavior related to gaining access to toys when they have had access to the toys recently and if there are a plethora of toys available BASIC PRINCIPLES OF BEHAVIOR

8 When a pattern of problem behavior is identified, we… Conduct an assessment Identify the function of the behavior Modify behavior by making environmental changes Setting event strategies: modifying motivational operations to change the value of reinforcers and punishers Antecedent strategies: modifying instructions or environment to increase likelihood of appropriate behavior Replacement behaviors: choose functionally equivalent, pro-social behaviors to teach the student Consequence strategies: plan for reinforcement of desired behavior and punishment of problem behavior BASIC PRINCIPLES OF BEHAVIOR

9 Before we begin the assessment process we need to determine if intervention is necessary. Screening questions: Does the individuals behavior pose a danger to himself or others? Does the behavior pose a health or safety hazard to the student or others? Does the behavior affect the students welfare in the current environment? Does the behavior prevent the individual from accessing the general education curriculum or less restrictive environments in the school, home or community? If the answer is yes to any of the questions, assessment and intervention is warranted! ASSESSING PROBLEM BEHAVIOR

10 Before beginning the student assessment: Conduct Classroom-Management Self-Assessment If there are areas in which improvement is needed, address those first before focusing attention on the individual student Five steps to collecting functional behavior assessment data: Obtain a baseline measurement of observable problem behaviors Conduct a functional behavior assessment Perform a discrepancy analysis Review educational records Review previous treatments Review health and medical records ASSESSING PROBLEM BEHAVIOR

11 Classroom Management Self-Assessment Maximize structure and predictability in classroom Positively stated expectations are posted, taught and reinforced Students actively engaged in observable ways Continuum of strategies to acknowledge appropriate behavior Continuum of strategies to respond to inappropriate behavior Conduct assessment and identify if there are areas in which you need to improve related to classroom management Problem behaviors could be attributable to problems with classroom management, not a problem with the student If classroom management strategies are excellent and student behavior is still a problem, proceed with student assessment of problem behavior ASSESSING PROBLEM BEHAVIOR

12 Baseline measurement of observable problem behaviors Define the behavior in observable and measureable terms What does the behavior LOOK like? Does it have a clear beginning and end? What are examples of the behavior? What are non-examples of the behavior? How are you going to collect data on the behavior? Frequency? Duration? Percentage/Interval? Collect baseline data for a week unless the problem behavior presents a danger to the student or others How many times per day/week is the behavior occurring? ASSESSING PROBLEM BEHAVIOR

13 Conduct a functional behavior assessment Direct observation is essential Assessment methods: Behavioral interview A-B-C descriptive analysis Scatterplot Assessment attempts to answer: Under what conditions is behavior more/less likely? During which parts of the day is the behavior more/less likely? What usually happens as a consequence of the students behavior? What strategies work to prevent the behavior from occurring? What strategies work to stop the behavior once it has started? ASSESSING PROBLEM BEHAVIOR

14 Perform a performance discrepancy analysis Many times it is helpful to analyze the discrepancy between the performance of peers and the performance of the student Questions to ask/answer: How often do same-aged peers engage in the target behavior? What constitutes an acceptable level of behavior? Collect same data on peer group across a week to determine an average number of behaviors This data assists teacher in developing reasonable goals ASSESSING PROBLEM BEHAVIOR

15 Review educational records What is the history of the behavior? Does the student have academic problems? Review previous treatments implemented What has/has not worked in the past? Review health and medical records Are there medical/psychological issues which may be increasing the likelihood of behavior occurring? Is a referral for outside services warranted? ASSESSING PROBLEM BEHAVIOR

16 The information gathered during the assessment process should elucidate how often, when and why a behavior is occurring Most behaviors youll encounter in the classroom will serve the function of Socially-Mediated Access (SMA) or Socially- Mediated Escape (SME) Day 1 – Interventions for SMA problem behaviors Day 2 – Interventions for SME problem behaviors IDENTIFY THE FUNCTION OF BEHAVIOR

17 Intervention strategies for the classroom FUNCTION: SOCIALLY- MEDIATED ACCESS

18 Socially-Mediated Access (SMA) to: Adult/staff attention During independent work time, Anna will get out of her seat and wander the classroom. When this occurs the teacher typically has her sit at the table by her desk and interacts with Anna while she works. Peer attention At recess, Billy will run across the soccer field and bump into other kids. The other kids typically start chasing him and yelling at him which Billy seems to enjoy as evidenced by the big smile on his face. Tangible reinforcers During free-choice time, if a student has something she wants Carla will become physically aggressive (e.g., hit, kick, pull hair) with the other student. The other student will typically move away from the area and Carla usually gets access to the preferred item or activity. IDENTIFY THE FUNCTION OF BEHAVIOR

19 Behavioral definition: Anna is considered to be out of her seat when she is supposed to working independently and she did not ask permission. If she asks to get out of her seat, this will not be counted. Type of data: Frequency Baseline data: 25 times per day Discrepancy analysis: 3 time per day ASSESSMENT DATA FOR ANNA

20 Scatterplot data: A-B-C data: ASSESSMENT DATA FOR ANNA ActivityFrequency Morning Work 5 Math7 Reading3 Writing5 Free Choice 5 ABC Morning workAnna gets up 5 times Teacher talks to her day Math assignment Anna gets up 7 times Teacher prompts to sit down Reading assignment Anna gets up 3 times Teacher tells to come to front table to read Writing assignment Anna gets up 5 times Teacher has sit at front table Free choiceAnn gets up 5 times Teacher goes over and does puzzle with her

21 Socially-Mediate Access to Adult Attention During independent work time, Anna will get out of her seat and wander the classroom. When this occurs the teacher typically has her sit at the table by her desk and interacts with Anna while she works. Setting event strategies Abolishing Operation – provide Anna with extra attention throughout the day to decrease the value of attention as a reinforcer Antecedent strategies Prior to independent work time, remind Anna that she needs to work at her desk and that she can raise her hand if she needs help Replacement behavior Teach Anna to raise her hand and ask to sit at the table next to the teachers desk Consequence strategies Provide Anna with attention for engaging in the desired behavior Provide Anna with attention for engaging in the replacement behavior Do not provide Anna with attention for engaging in the problem behavior INTERVENTION PLAN FOR ANNA

22 Behavioral definition: Bumping into peers is defined as his body touching the body of a peer while walking or running past them. Accidental bumps will not be counted. Type of data: Frequency Baseline data: 20 times per day Discrepancy analysis: 1 time per day ASSESSMENT DATA FOR BILLY

23 Scatterplot data: A-B-C data: ASSESSMENT DATA FOR BILLY ActivityFrequency Group work 1 Recess10 Math0 Free choice 7 Science2 ABC Working with peer Walked by and bumped with shoulder Peer turned and smiled and said stop it Billy! Soccer field at recess Ran by 10 peers and hit with arm Peers yelled at him and 2 started to chase Free choice, playing cars Crawled by peer and ran into their legs Peer got car and started racing cars with Billy Science experiment Walked by peer and bumped with knee Peers told him to stop and then told the teacher

24 Socially-Mediate Access to Peer Attention At recess, Billy will run across the soccer field and bump into other kids. The other kids typically start chasing him and yelling at him which Billy seems to enjoy as evidenced by the big smile on his face. Setting event strategies Abolishing Operation – provide many opportunities throughout the day for Billy to work with and play with peers to decrease the value Antecedent strategies Have Billy read a social story about how to get the attention of peers in an appropriate way and role-play before recess Replacement behavior Teach Billy skills to gain the attention of peers in a pro-social way Consequence strategies Peers provide attention to Billy when he engages in desired behavior Peers provide attention to Billy when he uses replacement behavior Peers do not provide attention when Billy engages in problem behavior INTERVENTION PLAN FOR BILLY

25 Behavioral definition: Physical aggression is defined as any contact between Carla and a peer which results in the peer becoming upset. Includes hitting, kicking, pushing, hair pulling, etc. Does not include contact which is expected such as during a game of tag or when gaining a person attention. Type of data: Frequency Baseline data: 15 times per day Discrepancy analysis: 0 times per day ASSESSMENT DATA FOR CARLA

26 Scatterplot data: A-B-C data: ASSESSMENT DATA FOR CARLA ActivityFrequency Recess2 Math0 Reading0 Free Choice 10 Snack3 ABC Playing basketball Kicked another student Student dropped the ball and Carla got it Free choice – peers playing with dolls Pushed a peer and pulled doll out of her hands Peer left doll area and went to tell the teacher Snack – peer next to her eating cookies Pulled peers hair Peer left table, Carla ate one of peers cookies

27 Socially-Mediate Access to Tangible Reinforcers During free-choice time, if a student has something she wants Carla will become physically aggressive (e.g., hit, kick, pull hair) with the other student. The other student will typically move away from the area and Carla usually gets access to the preferred item or activity. Setting event strategies Abolishing operations – Make preferred items and activities readily available to decrease the value of the reinforcer Antecedent strategies Prior to free-choice time, remind Carla of expected behavior Replacement behavior Teach Carla to ask peers for items/activities and wait for her turn Consequence strategies Peer provides access to item/activity when Carla engages in desired behavior or uses replacement behavior Peer does not provide access to item/activity when Carla engages in problem behavior INTERVENTION PLAN FOR CARLA

28 QUESTIONS?

29 Intervention strategies for the classroom FUNCTION: SOCIALLY- MEDIATED ESCAPE

30 Socially-Mediated Escape (SME) from: Unpleasant social situations In the lunch room, when Danny tries to sit down at a table, the other students tell him to go sit somewhere else. Danny will push or hit the other students. The recess monitor will usually send him to the office. Relatively lengthy tasks During long work assignments, Erin will get up multiple times to sharpen her pencil or go to the bathroom. Many times this results in her not completing the assignment and getting poor grades. Relatively difficult tasks When given a difficult assignment during math class, Fernando will crumple the paper, throw it at the teacher, refuse to do the work and call her names. This typically results in him getting sent to the office. Aversive physical stimuli/event On days when there is an assembly, Greta will refuse to enter the gym by yelling at the teacher and then running into the bathroom and locking the stall door. The teacher makes her go to the office until it is over. IDENTIFY THE FUNCTION OF BEHAVIOR

31 Behavioral definition: Pushing and hitting is defined as any contact between Dannys hands and the body of another student. Touching to get the persons attention or accidental contact will not be counted. Type of data: Frequency Baseline data: 4 times per week Discrepancy analysis: 0 times per week ASSESSMENT DATA FOR DANNY

32 Scatterplot data: A-B-C data: ASSESSMENT DATA FOR DANNY ActivityFrequency Lunch4 Math0 Reading0 Writing0 Science0 ABC Trying to find a seat in the lunchroom, student told him he couldnt sit Hit student in the face with a open palm Recess monitor sent to office to eat lunch Walking by a table trying to find a spot, a student tripped him and laughed Pushed student and student fell on the ground Recess monitor sent to office to eat lunch

33 Socially-Mediate Escape from Unpleasant Social Situations In the lunchroom, when Danny tries to sit down at a table, the other students tell him to go sit somewhere else. Danny will push or hit the other students. The recess monitor will usually send him to the office. Setting event strategies Establish Operation – set up a lunch buddy system to make the value of staying in the lunchroom greater Antecedent strategies Remind Danny about behavioral expectations and problem solving strategies to use if something doesnt go his way Replacement behavior Teach Danny to request eating lunch in the office and request for assistance finding a place to sit Consequence strategies Reinforce use of desired or replacement behavior with lunch in office Do not reinforce problem behavior, prompt to use replacement INTERVENTION PLAN FOR DANNY

34 Behavioral definition: Off-task behavior is defined as being out of her seat with or without permission when she is supposed to be working on an assignment. Type of data: Frequency and percent completed Baseline data: 35 times per day, 40% completed Discrepancy analysis: 5 times per day, 90% completed ASSESSMENT DATA FOR ERIN

35 Scatterplot data: A-B-C data: ASSESSMENT DATA FOR ERIN ActivityFrequencyPercent Math730% Reading650% Writing840% Science1025% History955% ABC Math testGot up multiple times to get water Did not complete test Silent readingWent to the bathroom and up talking Read half of the assigned chapter Writing letter to the president Sharpened pencil 8 times Wrote two sentences Science experiment Walking around talking to peers Didnt complete assignment Group workSharpened pencil and went to the bathroom Finished part of the assignment

36 Socially-Mediate Escape from Relatively Lengthy Tasks During long work assignments, Erin will get up multiple times to sharpen her pencil or go to the bathroom. Many times this results in her not completing the assignment and getting poor grades. Setting event strategies Establishing operation – increase the value of completing assignments by linking to reinforcement system Antecedent strategies Modify the length of the assignment if needed Replacement behavior Teach to request to take a break during the assignment Consequence strategies Reinforce for desired or replacement behavior Do not reinforce problem behavior by requiring task completion INTERVENTION PLAN FOR ERIN

37 Behavioral definition: Refusal to do work is defined as verbally protesting, crumpling or ripping work and leaving work area without permission. Type of data: Frequency Baseline data: 5 times per day Discrepancy analysis: 0 times per day ASSESSMENT DATA FOR FERNANDO

38 Scatterplot data: A-B-C data: ASSESSMENT DATA FOR FERNANDO ActivityFrequency Art0 Math3 Reading0 Writing2 Science0 ABC Teacher handed him math worksheet Crumpled paper, threw at teacher and yelled No!! Teacher told him to go do a math game on the computer Teacher handed him math worksheet Spit at teacher and kicked her Teacher sent him to the office Given writing assignment Poked peer with his pencil Sent to the principles office

39 Socially-Mediate Escape from Relatively Difficult Tasks When given a difficult assignment during math class, Fernando will crumple the paper, throw it at the teacher, refuse to do the work and call her names. This typically results in him getting sent to the office. Setting event strategies Establishing operation – increase the value to completing difficult assignments by linking to meaningful reinforcement system Antecedent strategies Modify assignment if appropriate and clarify expectations Replacement behavior Teach Fernando to request different work or negotiate the number Consequence strategies Reinforce desired and replacement behavior Do not reinforce problem behavior, prompt to use replacement INTERVENTION PLAN FOR FERNANDO

40 Behavioral definition: Refusal is defined as verbally protesting and running from the designated area. Type of data: Frequency Baseline data: 1 time per week Discrepancy analysis: 0 times per week ASSESSMENT DATA FOR GRETA

41 Scatterplot data: A-B-C data: ASSESSMENT DATA FOR GRETA ActivityFrequency Art0 Gym0 Lunch0 Assembly1 Math0 ABC Walking to assembly Yells Im not going and runs to the bathroom Teacher gives choice of going to assembly or waiting in office

42 Socially-Mediate Escape from Aversive Physical Stimuli/Event On days when there is an assembly, Greta will refuse to enter the gym by yelling at the teacher and then running into the bathroom and locking the stall door. The teacher makes her go to the office until it is over. Setting event strategies Abolishing operation – decrease the value of leaving the gym by providing with ear plugs Antecedent strategies Modify expectations by requiring her to stay for shorter time Replacement behavior Teach her to request to not attend the assembly Consequence strategies Reinforce desired and replacement behavior Do not reinforce problem behavior, prompt to use replacement INTERVENTION PLAN FOR GRETA

43 QUESTIONS?

44 Ennio Cipani and Keven Schock – Functional Behavioral Assessment, Diagnosis and Treatment (2 nd Edition, 2011) Brandi Simonsen, Sarah Fairbanks, Amy Briesch, & George Sugai - Classroom Management: Self-Assessment (Revised, 2006) RESOURCES


Download ppt "Assessment and Intervention Strategies for Teachers PROBLEM BEHAVIOR IN THE CLASSROOM Abby Twyman, M.Ed., BCBA, LBA Director of Behavioral Services."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google