7What do we do with This Information? Simple FBAIf the team has confidence in the hypothesisIf the team does not have confidence in the hypothesisDevelop/Implement a Behavior Support PlanGather More Information: Do at Full FBA
8Competing Behavior Pathways Desired Behavior5 Remains on Task, complete work tasks independentlyReceives positive reinforcement for staying on task and completing work.1 Makes noises, taps pencilTeacher assists student3 Literacy Class2 Independent WorkAttention8
9Fundamental Rule!“You should not propose to reduce a problem behavior without also identifying alternative, desired behaviors person should perform instead of problem behavior” (O’Neill et al., 1997, p. 71).
11Competing Behavior Pathways 5 Remains on Task, complete work tasks independentlyReceives positive reinforcement for staying on task and completing work.1 Makes noises, taps pencilTeacher assists student3 Literacy Class2 Independent WorkAttention6 Raises hand when he needs assistance11
12Activity 1Using the post its on your table, write the setting event, antecedent, behavior, maintaining consequence, replacement behavior, desired behavior and new maintaining consequence for your team’s student in one of the blank Competing Behavior Pathways.
13Group Share Tell us about your student. What is the… Observable behavior you chose?Antecedent?Setting Event?Consequences?Hypothesis of Function of BehaviorSelected Desire BehaviorReplacement Behavior
14With your team, discuss and modify the Competing Behavior Pathway Activity 2With your team, discuss and modify the Competing Behavior Pathwayfor your student.(Upper Portion Only)
15Group Share Which Strategy did you choose to try? How did it go? Setting Event StrategiesAntecedent StrategiesTeaching StrategiesConsequence StrategiesAdd effectivereinforcers for alternative and desired behaviorMinimize reinforcement (“pay-off”) for problem behaviorEliminate/neutralizesettingeventsModify or remove triggers to prevent problem behaviorPrompt alternative and/or desired behaviorTeachalternativethat is moreefficientTeach desired skills
16Behavior Intervention Program (BIP) Two Goals:Reduce problem behaviorsIncrease appropriate behaviorsMake behaviors:IrrelevantInefficientineffective
17Function Based Strategies The team will consider the FUNCTION of the problem behavior when identifying:Setting Event StrategiesAntecedent StrategiesTeaching StrategiesConsequence StrategiesAdd effectivereinforcers for alternative and desired behaviorMinimize reinforcement (“pay-off”) for problem behaviorEliminate/neutralizesettingeventsModify or remove triggers to prevent problem behaviorPrompt alternative and/or desired behaviorTeachalternativethat is moreefficientTeach desired skills
18Setting Event Strategies These are structural changes made to the students day or classroomAlternative ScheduleSitting Near the TeacherLunch in the support roomStudent Check InEarly or late entry to class/activityT Cassano 2011
21Antecedent Strategies Setting Event StrategiesManipulate AntecedentTeach BehaviorAlter ConsequencesEliminate or Neutralize Setting EventsPrevent/Modify “Triggers”Prompts for Alt/Des BehaviorTeach Alternate BehaviorTeach Desired Behavior/ Academic/ Social SkillsReinforce Alt/Des BehaviorResponse to Problem Behavior/ Corrective FeedbackAntecedent strategies are designed to make problem behavior irrelevant by:1. Eliminating or Modifying antecedents that “trigger” the behaviorAND2. Prompting alternative/Desired behavior (pre-correction)
22Identifying Antecedent Strategies When asked to read independently at his seat, Ronnie makes inappropriate noises and makes faces at peers. Based on the FBA data collected, the team agreed that the function of Ronnie’s behavior is to obtain peer attention.Which is the best antecedent modifying strategy?Provide student with an easier reading assignmentRemind student of expectations related to respectful behaviorAllow student to wear headphones during independent readingAsk student to work quietly 1:1 with a ‘reading buddy’Have student check in with the teacher at the beginning of classAddresses:1.Antecedent? Function?
23Identifying Antecedent Strategies When Pam is asked to work on long-division problems in math class, she argues, refuses to work, and uses profanity to avoid/escape the difficult task.Which is the best antecedent modifying strategy to prevent problem behavior? Why or Why Not?Move student’s seat closer to the teacherGive student more time to complete the difficult tasksGive student an easier math assignment she can be successful withWarn student she will be sent to office for using profanityAllow student to practice long-division on the computer
26Consequence strategies help make problem behavior ineffective by: Setting Event StrategiesManipulate AntecedentPrevent problem & prompt alternate/desired behaviorTeach BehaviorExplicitly Teach Alternative & Desired BehaviorsAlter ConsequencesReinforce alternate & desired behavior & extinguish negative behaviorEliminate or Neutralize Setting EventsModify/Prevent “Triggers”Prompt Alt/Desired BehaviorTeach Alternate BehaviorTeach Desired Behavior/ Academic/ Social SkillsReinforce Alt/Des BehaviorResponse to Problem Behavior- Redirection-ExtinctionConsequence strategies help make problem behavior ineffective by:Reinforcing appropriate behaviorsAND…Minimizing reinforcement for problem behavior
28Behavior Intervention Program (BIP) Two Goals:Reduce problem behaviorsIncrease appropriate behaviorsMake behaviors:IrrelevantInefficientineffective
29Consequences: Reinforcing the Alternative Behavior It is extremely important that the alternative behavior is reinforced:ImmediatelyConsistentlyand…Results in the same type of reinforcement as the problem behaviorThis is necessary for the alternative behavior to successfully compete with the problem behavior.In other words, the problem behavior cannot happen if the student is exhibiting the desired behavior…they can’t happen at the same time!
30Reasonable expectations? Identifying Consequence Strategies: Reinforcing Alternative/Desired BehaviorDuring independent seatwork, Ronnie makes inappropriate noises and makes faces at peers. The function of Ronnie’s behavior is to obtain peer attention.Function?Reasonable expectations?Which are the best reinforcement strategies?Student is allowed to sit by a preferred peer for 15 minutes, if he is quiet and on task during seatwork every day for a weekStudent will receive a “free homework pass” if he has no problem behavior during independent seatworkWhen student is on task with no problem behavior for 15 minutes, he will be allowed to sit at back table and read with a peerStudent receives frequent teacher praise for staying on taskStudent is allowed to work with a peer when asks appropriately
31Identifying Consequence Strategies: Reinforcing Alternative/Desired Behavior During independent reading time in language arts, Audrey makes noises, talks out, and walks around the room. The FBA has shown that this behavior is maintained by adult attention.Which are the best reinforcement strategies? Why or Why Not?Student can play a game with the teacher if she works quietly (no more than 2 talk-outs) during independent readingStudent is allowed to work with a peer when she has been quiet for 15 minutesStudent receives help from teacher if asks appropriatelyStudent can eat lunch with the teacher if no talk-outs for one monthStudent earns a homework pass for on-task behavior
33Consequences: Responding to Problem Behavior Responses to Problem Behavior should focus on two things:#1. Redirecting to the Alternative Behavior#2. Extinction of the Problem Behavior
34Responding to Problem Behavior: Redirection At the earliest signs of problem behavior, quickly redirect to the alternative behaviorExample:During independent work, Annie often talks out to get teacher attention. If ignored, Annie will begin yelling and knocking materials off her desk.When Annie first starts talking out, her teacher will immediately remind her how to appropriately get adult attention and will praise Annie’s use of the alternative behavior.
35Responding to Problem Behavior: Extinction Do NOT allow the problem behavior to “work” or “pay off” for the student.Eliminate/minimize the amount of missed instructional time or work provided to a student for engaging in problem behaviorBut… make sure student is capable of doing work… or provide support/instruction so student can complete the workEliminate/minimize the amount of attention for engaging in problem behaviorLimit verbal interactions/explanationsCreate a signal to cue the student to use the alternative behavior instead
36Responding to Problem Behavior: Extinction ** Note: extinction should ALWAYS be combined with frequent reinforcers for alternative/desired behavior.Example:Darci engages in problem behavior that results in peer attention.Darci’s peers will receive “Panther Paws” for ignoring her inappropriate behavior.Darci will also be learning how to interact (and provided frequent opportunities to practice interacting) with peers appropriately and will earn time with peers for alternative/desired behavior.
38Teaching StrategiesThese are the skills the student will need to be taught to do*How to ask for a break using break card*How to monitor his/her progress with a point sheet*How to engage in appropriate conversations with peers during small group counselingT Cassano 2011
40Activity 3Use the post its on your table to come up with 1 setting strategy, 1 antecedent strategy, 1 behavior teaching strategy and 1 consequence strategy and place them on the appropriate chart paper.
41In your packet, complete the lower portion (initial intervention plan) ACTIVITY 4In your packet, complete the lower portion (initial intervention plan)for your student.
42Leaving Thoughts Keep the Simple FBA Simple Save Full FBA for more complex cases
43Adapted from Sugai, Lewis-Palmer, & Hagan, 1999 Where we left off-HomeworkAdapted from Sugai, Lewis-Palmer, & Hagan, 1999
44Full FBA Required more data collection -Teacher/Parent/Student Interviews-More Behavior Observations-File Review-Office Discipline Referrals-Grades-Test Scores
45Building Behavior Support Plans Step 1: Develop Competing Behavior PathwayStep 2: Identify and Select Behavior Support StrategiesStep 3: Develop Implementation PlanStep 4: Develop Evaluation Plan
47Progress Monitoring in Data collection systems Identify the skills to be addressed within the specialized instruction and choose an appropriate program/approachEither select or develop a data collection tool which aligns with the focus of the goals/objectives - develop a file of templates for data collection for future useUse a data sheet that is set up to take data efficiently and clearly - checklists/tallies- with correct measurement that aligns with the language of the goal/objectives
53ACTIVITY 5 Discuss with your team a plan for progress monitoring your student/case study
54FBA and Check In Check Out CICO generally used as first intervention prior to FBAFBA is done if CICO student DPR goals are not being metSchool-wide expectation should be referenced when desired behavior is named and taughti.e. Desired Behavior – raise hand and ask for helpSchool-wide expectation - Responsibility/Respect for othersCICO daily progress reports can be used for teaching and reinforcement and can be modified as a result of a FBA
55Thanks andThink about coaching needs back home and try to arrange for at least one on-site coaching visit with one of us with your team back home during an actual FBA/BIP