FBAs Function of behavior To gain something To escape/avoid something FBA determines the function of the target behavior
FBA determines the context of the behavior Settings Conditions Types of activities
FBA results in an hypothesis regarding the function of the behavior When Adam is asked to complete word problems during math, he curses and throws his book on the floor.
After completing a FBA the team determined that the function of Adams behavior was to avoid the task by being sent to ISS. The team also learned that Adam had difficulty with the language used in the math text book.
Positive Behavior Support Interventions based on teaching rather than controlling Suppressing inappropriate behavior results in further attempts by student to meet his/her needs, usually in inappropriate ways Teaching new, appropriate behaviors addresses the source and the problem
BIPs include strategies to: Teach student more acceptable ways to get what he/she wants, e.g. Replacement behaviors Decrease future occurrences of the misbehavior Address repeated episodes of the misbehavior
Replacement behaviors Behaviors that serve the same function as the inappropriate behavior Asking to be left alone Using conflict resolution skills Using instructional strategies Tolerating delay Using self-management techniques
Decrease future occurrences Setting events that make behavior more likely to occur Physical arrangement of classroom Management strategies Seating arrangements Sequence of academic instruction
Decrease future occurrences Manipulate consequences Precise praise/feedback Principles of reinforcement DRO Shaping (successive approximations) Student contracts Group motivational strategies
Components of a BIP Identify the function of the behavior Select a replacement behavior Design a teaching plan Arrange the environment Develop consequences for desired and undesired behavior Write behavioral objectives
Replacement behaviors Make problem behavior Irrelevant Inefficient Ineffective
Selecting replacement behaviors Problem: Attention seeking behavior Effective interventions Keep student from engaging in inappropriate behavior Teach replacement behavior Practice new behavior Reinforce new behavior
Behavior: Anne pushes other girls on the playground. Function of behavior: She wants to play with them. Replacement behavior??
Selecting replacement behaviors Problem: Escape/avoidance behaviors Teach socially acceptable replacement behavior such as, asking for help, signals Provide more appropriate assignments (curricular accommodations)
Provide strategies and/or supports (instructional modifications) Pair undesired activity with desired activity
Behavior: Sarah ignores teacher requests to participate in group discussions Function of behavior: Sarah does not want to look dumb in front of her friends Replacement behavior?
Positive interventions must: Be aligned with assessment information There is no one size fits all when it comes to replacement behaviors Learning outcomes must be complemented by: Teacher actions Instructional materials Monitoring systems
Which intervention: Aligns with function of behavior Is most appropriate given student needs and present levels of performance Directly teaches target behavior Is least intrusive, least complex Will change behavior quickly and easily Unlikely to produce negative side effects
Which intervention Has evidence of effectiveness with targeted behavior Is most acceptable to person responsible for implementation Is most acceptable to student Is most likely to promote replacement behavior that occurs and will be reinforced in natural environment Has most system-wide support