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©Scott, 2011 Simplified FBA: Considering Function in Everyday Classroom Settings Terrance M. Scott, Ph.D. ABRI University of Louisville
©Scott, 2011 F B A Involves gathering information from all those who know student Predict when/where behavior problems will occur Determine why problems occur The purpose is to get the information necessary to create a successful plan Assessing predictable relationships between the environment and behavior
©Scott, 2011 Why Do People Behave? Modeling? Accident? Instinct? Condition?? Why Do People Continue Behaving? IT WORKS!
©Scott, 2011 Functions Legitimate Functions –Get something (attention, tangible, event, etc) –Avoid something (attention, event, person, etc) –Self-stimulation (hair twirling, rocking, etc) Non-Legitimate functions –Power (not specific - all behavior is for power) –Control (not specific - all behavior is for control) –Didn’t take meds (antecedent - not a function) –Crazy parents (not a function)
©Scott, 2011 Function of Behavior
©Scott, 2011 Simplified FBA 1.Identify a behavior of concern –Define in a way that is observable 2.Identify predictors in the environment –Things that happen before and after 3.Identify a function –Why does that happen? 4.Teach a replacement behavior –What is appropriate way to get same function? 5.Change the environment to prevent –What could make the problem not happen? –What consequences are functional?
©Scott, 2011 Functional Behavior Pathways Setting Condition Problem Behavior Antecedent Trigger Access or Avoid = reinforce Replacement Behavior
©Scott, 2011 Eric yawns loudly when the teacher is working with another student and the teacher comes to him and answers a question
©Scott, 2011 Eric taps his pencil loudly against his paper while teacher is working with another student and the teacher comes to him and provides assistance on math
©Scott, 2011 Eric drums on his desk while the teacher works at the board and the teacher looks at him and excuses him to the restroom
©Scott, 2011 STEP 1 DEFINE THE PROBLEM Be so clear in your definition that when you’re done anyone could act out the problem and it would look/sound just like it does in reality
©Scott, 2011 STEP 2 IDENTIFY PREDICTORS Let’s bet – when do you think Eric will make noises? Also, what do you think will likely happen when he does? On what environmental events would you put your money?
©Scott, 2011 Functional Behavior Pathways In an academic setting Disruptive Noises No direct teacher attention Teacher provides attention Replacement Behavior ERIC
©Scott, 2011 STEP 3 IDENTIFY FUNCTION What’s the purpose of this behavior? Why would the student want to do it? What is in it for him?
©Scott, 2011 Functional Behavior Pathways In an academic setting Disruptive Noises No direct teacher attention Teacher provides attention Replacement Behavior ERIC The function of the behavior is to gain teacher attention
©Scott, 2011 STEP4 TEACH A REPLACEMENT BEHAVIOR What behavior would get the same function for the student and be appropriate for environment?
©Scott, 2011 Functional Behavior Pathways In an academic setting Disruptive Noises No direct teacher attention Teacher provides attention Raise Hand and wait quietly ERIC
©Scott, 2011 Modeling Show and tell students what it is that is expected under specific circumstances. Do not assume that they know and can. Opportunities to Respond (OTR) Asking questions - Group (choral) or individual responses (evidence says mixed) Requests for student behavior Prompts and Cues - Verbal and Gestural - Precorrection Effective Instructional Strategies
©Scott, 2011 STEP 5 CHANGE THE ENVIRONMENT TO PREDICT SUCCESS What can be done before the behavior occurs and what should be done after positive and negative behaviors?
©Scott, 2011 BIP Teach replacement behaviors Create environments that predict success Facilitate success Provide functional consequences for positive & negative behaviors Monitor effectiveness of plan Developing a plan for creating an instructional environment that predicts positive behavior in place of problems
©Scott, 2011 Functional Behavior Pathways Academic work setting Disruptive noises No direct teacher attention Teacher provides attention Raise hand and wait quietly Curriculum Expectations Time Routines Examples Engagement Prompts Physical Arrangement Functional Consequence Functional Consequence
©Scott, 2011 Use the least amount necessary Approximate and/or pair with natural reinforcers Make part of routine and systems Pre-plan and teach consequences Effective Reinforcement Eric: hand raising
©Scott, 2011 Use the least amount necessary Pre-plan and teach Use only with reinforcement for replacement behavior Should defeat function of problem behavior Effective Punishment Chris: Punishment
©Scott, 2011 Escape Function Student Example In an academic classroom Rude, defiant, refuses, ignores Any request to work on academics Escape academic work in class Complete work to earn free time Curriculum Expectations Time Routines Examples Engagement Prompts Physical Arrangement Functional Consequence Functional Consequence
©Scott, 2011 Doctoral Program In Behavior Disorders Terry Scott Professor and Distinguished University Scholar College of Education and Human Development University of Louisville Louisville, KY (502)
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