1 Chapter 3 Objectives Section 1 Carbon Compounds Distinguish between organic and inorganic compounds.Explain the importance of carbon bonding in biological molecules.Identify functional groups in biological molecules.Summarize how large carbon molecules are synthesized and broken down.Describe how the breaking down of ATP supplies energy to drive chemical reactions.
2 Most inorganic compounds do not contain carbon atoms. Section 1 Carbon CompoundsChapter 3Carbon BondingOrganic compounds contain carbon (C) atoms and are found in living things.Most inorganic compounds do not contain carbon atoms.Carbon dioxide is an example CO2
3 Carbon Bonding, continued Section 1 Carbon CompoundsChapter 3Carbon Bonding, continuedCarbon atoms can readily form four covalent bonds with other atoms including other carbon atoms because it only contains 4 electrons in its outer energy level. (Remember for an atom to be “happy” it wants 8 electrons)The carbon bonds allow the carbon atoms to form a wide variety of simple and complex organic compounds.Single bond, double bond, triple bond
5 Chapter 3 Functional Groups Section 1 Carbon CompoundsChapter 3Functional GroupsFunctional groups are groups of atoms that influence the properties of molecules and the chemical reactions in which the molecules participate.Hydroxyl Ex: Isopropyl alcohol, rubbing alcoholCarboxyl Ex: Formic acid (stinging ants inject)Amino Ex: GlycinePhosphate Ex: Nucleic acid
6 Functional Groups continued Hydroxyl Group-OHMakes molecules polarPolar molecules are hydrophilic (soluble in water)EX: Alcohols fit into this group
7 Large Carbon Molecules Section 1 Carbon CompoundsChapter 3Large Carbon MoleculesCondensation reactions joinmonomers (small simple molecules)Polymers (monomers joined- called macromolecules)EX: carbs, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acidsA condensation reaction releases water as a by-product.In a hydrolysis reaction, water is used to split polymers into monomers.
8 Chapter 3 Energy Currency Section 1 Carbon CompoundsChapter 3Energy CurrencyAdenosine triphosphate (ATP) stores and releases energy during cell processes, enabling organisms to function.Example of hydrolysis
9 Chapter 3 Objectives Section 2 Molecules of Life Distinguish between monosaccharides, disaccharides,and polysaccharides.Explain the relationship between amino acids and protein structure.Describe the induced fit model of enzyme action.Compare the structure and function of each of the different types of lipids.Compare the nucleic acids DNA and RNA.
10 Carbohydrates Proteins Lipids Nucleic Acids Chapter 3 Section 2 Molecules of LifeChapter 34 main classes essential to lifeCarbohydratesProteinsLipidsNucleic Acids
11 Chapter 3 1. Carbohydrates Section 2 Molecules of LifeChapter 31. CarbohydratesCarbohydrates are organic compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of about 1:2:1Carbohydrates are a source of energy and are used as structural materials in organisms.HydrophilicDesigned to be a source of energy
12 Carbohydrates, continued Section 2 Molecules of LifeChapter 3Carbohydrates, continuedMonosaccharidesCarbohydrates are made up of monomers called monosaccharides. (simple sugars)Ex. Glucose, fructose, galactoseCopy the structure of glucose pg.55
14 Carbohydrates, continued Section 2 Molecules of LifeChapter 3Carbohydrates, continuedDisaccharides and PolysaccharidesTwo monosaccharides join to form a double sugar called a disaccharide.Ex. Sucrose (combination of fructose and glucose)A complex sugar, or polysaccharide, is made of three or more monosaccharides.Ex. Glycogen, starch, cellulose
16 Section 2 Molecules of Life Chapter 32. Proteins:organic compounds composed mainly of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen.Water friendlyForms of Proteins:enzymesmost anti-bodiesPigmentsHemoglobinhormones
17 Proteins continued- Amino Acids Chapter 3Section 2 Molecules of LifeProteins continued- Amino AcidsProteins are made up of monomers (long chains though) called amino acids. The sequence of amino acids determines a protein’s shape and function20 common in plants and animals
18 Chapter 3 Proteins, continued Dipeptides and Polypeptides Section 2 Molecules of LifeChapter 3Proteins, continuedDipeptides and PolypeptidesTwo amino acids are joined by peptide bonds (covelant bond) to form a dipeptide.A long chain of amino acids is called a polypeptide.
19 Section 2 Molecules of Life Chapter 3Structure of Proteins
20 Chapter 3 Proteins, continued Enzymes Section 2 Molecules of LifeChapter 3Proteins, continuedEnzymesEnzymes speed up chemical reactions and bind to specific substrates.Essential for the functioning of ANY cell.Many enzymes ARE proteinsEnzyme reactions depend on the physical fit between the enzyme (active site) and the substrate (the reactant being catalyzed)Induced fit model – model of enzyme actionsBottom of pg 57
21 Proteins continued- Enzymes Section 2 Molecules of LifeChapter 3Proteins continued- EnzymesWithout enzymes- chemical reactions in the body would be too slow to support lifeEnzymes are used over and overIf the environment changes-the enzyme may not work properly because the ACTIVE SITE shape may change!
22 Section 2 Molecules of Life Chapter 3Enzyme Activity
23 Section 2 Molecules of Life Chapter 33. LipidsLipids are large nonpolar molecules (don’t dissolve in water, they DO dissolve in oil)store the most energy (larger # of C & H atoms)an important part of cell membranes.
24 Chapter 3 Types of lipids Triglycerides Phospholipids Steroids Waxes Section 2 Molecules of LifeChapter 3Types of lipidsTriglyceridesPhospholipidsSteroidsWaxespigments
25 Chapter 3 Lipids, continued Fatty Acids Section 2 Molecules of LifeChapter 3Lipids, continuedFatty AcidsMost (ABUNDANT) lipids contain fatty acids, unbranched carbon molecules that have a hydrophilic end and a hydrophobic end.
26 Fatty Acids- continued Section 2 Molecules of LifeChapter 3Fatty Acids- continuedWhen each carbon atom is covalently bonded- the acid is SATURATEDWhen the carbon atoms are not fully bonded, and it creates double bonds with other carbon atoms, it is UNSATURATED
27 Chapter 3 Lipids, continued Triglycerides Section 2 Molecules of LifeChapter 3Lipids, continuedTriglyceridesTriglycerides consist of three fatty acids and one molecule of glycerol.Saturated TriglyceridesComposed of saturated fatty acidsHigh melting points-hard at room temp.Ex: butter, red meat fat
28 Chapter 3 Lipids, continued Unsaturated Triglycerides Section 2 Molecules of LifeChapter 3Lipids, continuedUnsaturated TriglyceridesComposed of unsaturated fatty acidsSoft or liquidPrimarily found in plant seedsEx: cooking oils
29 Chapter 3 Lipids, continued Phospholipids Section 2 Molecules of LifeChapter 3Lipids, continuedPhospholipidsmake up cell membranes (lipid bilayer)pg 59 fig 3-11consist of two fatty acids (not 3 like lipids) and one glycerol molecule.
31 Chapter 3 Lipids, continued Waxes Section 2 Molecules of LifeChapter 3Lipids, continuedWaxesA wax is made of one long fatty acid chain joined to one long alcohol.WaterproofSteroidsA steroid is composed of four fused carbon rings.HormonesCholesterol
32 Section 2 Molecules of Life Chapter 34. Nucleic AcidsA nucleic acid is a large and complex organic molecule that stores and transports information.Made up of C,H,O,N,PStructure is a double helix2 typesDeoxyriboNucleic Acid (DNA)RiboNucleic Acid (RNA)
33 Chapter 3 DNA- continued Humans- 46 molecules of DNA or 46 chromosomes Section 2 Molecules of LifeChapter 3DNA- continuedHumans- 46 molecules of DNA or 46 chromosomesDNA is a nucleotide- thousands of monomersContains the genetic information for cellsWhat makes up DNA?Phosphate groupSugar (deoxyribose)Base groupAdenine, Thymine, Cytosine, Guanine
34 Chapter 3 RNA- continued What does RNA do? Section 2 Molecules of LifeChapter 3RNA- continuedWhat does RNA do?Stores & transfers info from DNA to manufacture proteinsCan act as an enzyme
35 Structure of Nucleic Acids Section 2 Molecules of LifeChapter 3Structure of Nucleic Acids