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Triumph of Parliament in England. The Tudors Ruled from 1485-1603 Ruled from 1485-1603 –Henry VIII –Elizabeth I Believed in divine right, but recognized.

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Presentation on theme: "Triumph of Parliament in England. The Tudors Ruled from 1485-1603 Ruled from 1485-1603 –Henry VIII –Elizabeth I Believed in divine right, but recognized."— Presentation transcript:

1 Triumph of Parliament in England

2 The Tudors Ruled from Ruled from –Henry VIII –Elizabeth I Believed in divine right, but recognized the value of good relations w/ Parliament Believed in divine right, but recognized the value of good relations w/ Parliament –Elizabeth’s skill in handling Parliament made her a popular & successful ruler

3 The Stuarts Repeatedly clashed with Parliament Repeatedly clashed with Parliament James I James I –Belief in divine right- “I will not be content that my power be disputed on” –Had disputes with dissenters- Protestants who differed with the Church of England  King James version of bible

4 The Stuarts Charles I Charles I –Son of James I, behaved like an absolute monarch –Dissolved Parliament and ruled without it for 11 years –Parliament launched its own revolt  Executed Charles’ chief ministers  Declared that Parliament could not be dissolved without its own consent

5 The English Civil War Posed a major challenge to absolutism Posed a major challenge to absolutism Supporters of Charles I= Cavaliers Supporters of Charles I= Cavaliers –Well-trained –Wealthy nobles Supporters of Parliament=Roundheads Supporters of Parliament=Roundheads –Country gentry, manufacturers, Puritans –Leader: Oliver Cromwell –Defeated the Cavaliers

6 The English Civil War Parliament set up a court to put the king on trial Parliament set up a court to put the king on trial –Condemned him to death as a “tyrant, traitor, murderer and public enemy” Charles I beheaded Charles I beheaded –For the first time, king had been tried & executed by his own people –Parliament sent clear signal that no ruler could claim absolute power & ignore the law

7 The Commonwealth England was declared a republic called the Commonwealth under the leadership of Oliver Cromwell England was declared a republic called the Commonwealth under the leadership of Oliver Cromwell –Abolished monarchy & Church of England Exiled Catholics & ruled a Puritan society Exiled Catholics & ruled a Puritan society –Closed all theaters, Sunday=religious observance; no dancing, gambling or taverns Cromwell dies, end of Commonwealth Cromwell dies, end of Commonwealth –Charles II takes the throne

8 The Glorious Revolution Charles welcomed back: restored monarchy, Church of England & reopened theaters & taverns Charles welcomed back: restored monarchy, Church of England & reopened theaters & taverns But Charles’ brother James II inherited the throne- less popular ruler (Catholic) But Charles’ brother James II inherited the throne- less popular ruler (Catholic) –Glorious Revolution- James’ protestant daughter Mary & her husband William of Orange invited to become rulers of England. James fled; bloodless overthrow Established Limited Monarchy- monarch’s powers are limited by constitution or legislative body Established Limited Monarchy- monarch’s powers are limited by constitution or legislative body –Radical, considering absolute monarchies elsewhere in Europe

9 English Bill of Rights Ensured superiority of Parliament over the monarchy Ensured superiority of Parliament over the monarchy –Required the monarch to summon Parliament regularly Restated traditional rights of English citizens Restated traditional rights of English citizens Established habeas corpus- no person could be held in prison without first being charged with a specific crime Established habeas corpus- no person could be held in prison without first being charged with a specific crime


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