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Triumph of Parliament in England

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1 Triumph of Parliament in England

2 The Tudors Ruled from Henry VIII Elizabeth I Believed in divine right, but recognized the value of good relations w/ Parliament Elizabeth’s skill in handling Parliament made her a popular & successful ruler

3 The Stuarts Repeatedly clashed with Parliament James I
Belief in divine right- “I will not be content that my power be disputed on” Had disputes with dissenters- Protestants who differed with the Church of England King James version of bible

4 The Stuarts Charles I Son of James I, behaved like an absolute monarch
Dissolved Parliament and ruled without it for 11 years Parliament launched its own revolt Executed Charles’ chief ministers Declared that Parliament could not be dissolved without its own consent

5 The English Civil War Posed a major challenge to absolutism
Supporters of Charles I= Cavaliers Well-trained Wealthy nobles Supporters of Parliament=Roundheads Country gentry, manufacturers, Puritans Leader: Oliver Cromwell Defeated the Cavaliers

6 The English Civil War Parliament set up a court to put the king on trial Condemned him to death as a “tyrant, traitor, murderer and public enemy” Charles I beheaded For the first time, king had been tried & executed by his own people Parliament sent clear signal that no ruler could claim absolute power & ignore the law

7 The Commonwealth England was declared a republic called the Commonwealth under the leadership of Oliver Cromwell Abolished monarchy & Church of England Exiled Catholics & ruled a Puritan society Closed all theaters, Sunday=religious observance; no dancing, gambling or taverns Cromwell dies, end of Commonwealth Charles II takes the throne

8 The Glorious Revolution
Charles welcomed back: restored monarchy, Church of England & reopened theaters & taverns But Charles’ brother James II inherited the throne- less popular ruler (Catholic) Glorious Revolution- James’ protestant daughter Mary & her husband William of Orange invited to become rulers of England. James fled; bloodless overthrow Established Limited Monarchy- monarch’s powers are limited by constitution or legislative body Radical, considering absolute monarchies elsewhere in Europe

9 English Bill of Rights Ensured superiority of Parliament over the monarchy Required the monarch to summon Parliament regularly Restated traditional rights of English citizens Established habeas corpus- no person could be held in prison without first being charged with a specific crime

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