61980’s an initial “freeze” because of Soviet invasion of Afghanistan (1979)
71985 Since Gorbachev has come to power there has been a “thaw” and a new era of détente.
8THE COLD WAR“COLD WAR” – tense mood in international relations following the close of WWIIUSA vs. USSR –”Super Powers”Capitalist vs. CommunismEach side attacked the other, using propaganda, military alliances, politics and economics as their weapons
9HOW THE COLD WAR DEVELOPED The two superpowerssuspicious and afraid of each other mainly because of political, economical, and social differencesIdeological struggleWestern Bloc vs. Eastern BlocRussian Revolution in American oppositionWhen Germany was defeated in USA & USSR of each others aims.
103. 1944 – 1947 Soviet Union gained and kept control of several countries in Eastern Europe BulgariaRomaniaEast GermanyPolandCzechoslovakia4. Soviet Fear of the “atomic bomb” used by the Americans in 1945 on Nagasaki & Hiroshima
14METHODS OF COLD WAR (How the Cold War was Fought) POSSIBLE RESULTALLIANCESDivides the world into two armed campsIncreases the likelihood of total warNATO – WARSAW PACTARMS RACEIncreases the likelihood of armed confrontationIncrease in arms spending occursMoney which could be used for economic development or social programs would be spent on arm developments. (nuclear)SPACE RACE/ DEFENCE SYSTEMSArms race may move into spaceTensions could increase as technology expandsPROPAGANDAHuman Rights vs. Corrupt Government(USSR) (USA)INFORMATION WARSpies, microphones, films
15Q2. Describe the percentage agreement Q2. Describe the percentage agreement. Which European nations were affected by these agreements?Percentage agreement – the division of the Balkans and Europe by the allies and StalinUSSR to control50% of Yugoslavia & Hungary (soviet satellite)90% of Romania (soviet satellite)75% of Bulgaria (soviet satellite)Britain + USA to control90% of Greece50% of Yugoslavia & Hungary
16Q3. Majority control came to mean Total control USSR--- liberated one Eastern European country after another.“Sphere of Influence: --- who had control over an areaThe liberation of countries went against the American Policy of “self-determination”
17Q4. Name the three issues that defied resolutions at Potsdam in 1945 Q4. Name the three issues that defied resolutions at Potsdam in Compare the positions of the USA and the former USSR on these issues.Peace treaties, boundariesWho would control Poland & its boundariesUSA want London Poles re-instatedStalin wants the Lubtin Poles (pro-soviet) to stay in powerTypes of governments in eastern EuropeCouldn’t agree on control of Germany and Poland3. Final conditions of German disarmament & control over industriesDivision of Germany/Berlin remained the same as in Yalta (4 zones France, USA, Britain, USSR)Beginning of a bi-polar system
18Q9. The Balance of Power Types: Simple -----balance between equals Triple Alliance vs. the Triple Entente2. Bipolar between the Super powersUSA v.s the USSR ---- Cold War(opposing opinion)3. Regional NATO / WARSAW PactWestern Bloc vs. the Eastern Bloc
19Motivation: Q9 SECURITY STABILITY SURVIAL NORAD: continental Defense system (Canada & the USAYalta conference 1945NAZI-SOVIET PACT 1939
21Q5. What was the Polish question? West unwilling to confront StalinWho would govern Poland?Where would Poland’s boundaries be?Leaders Stalin, Churchill, RooseveltWestern Border Oder-Neisse Line – forced the relocation of 6-9 mil. Germans from German occupied regions i.e. East Prussia
22Q6.What does the phrase Iron Curtain refer to and how did Churchill portray the former Soviet Union in his Iron Curtain speech?The division between East and West EuropeEncroachingSpeech was in response to the refusal of the Soviets to remove occupation forces from Europe
23Q7. Retrieval Chart Truman Doctrine. H.O.Help Greece against the communist (money & arms)Helped the democratic government of GreeceA means of protecting spheres of influenceCreated a conflict between achieving containment and respecting national sovereignty
25Q8. Retrieval Chart: The Marshal Plan and the Soviet Response to the Marshall Plan. American foreign policy had to address two issues at the end of WWII: how to contain the spread of communism and how to restore those countries destroyed by war.The philosophy of “containment” was defined in an influential article written by George F. Kennan for the journal Foreign Affairs. He argued that communism must not be allowed to expand into other territories.The marshal plan, first describe by General George Marshall in a Harvard commencement speech, called for the USA to make available the foods and the technology necessary to restore war ravaged economies.The plan only supported efficient industries and was designed to create independence between nationsIts goal was the creation of a unified Europe. It was thought that political union somewhat like the Untied States might follow economic integration.
26The Marshal Plan Also know as the European Recovery Program A concern over the economic collapse of Europe (Great Britain & France) which would leave the USA to hold Western Europe single-handed against the USSR.1948 to mid. 1952$13 billion distributed in the for of direct aid, loan guarantees, grants & necessities from medicine to mules. of dollars for economic recovery ---- in return these countries would buy American goods (Tied Aid)
27Soviet Reaction to Marshall Plan Creation of its own economic program for eastern bloc countriesCominform (Communist Information Bureau)or Comecon (Council for Mutual Economic Assistance)Stalin established Communist governments in Eastern Europe ---- wants tighter controlCreated in response to the divergences among the eastern European governments on whether to attend the Paris conference on Marshal Aid in July 1947Distribution of propaganda to demonstrate the unity and encourage international communist solidarity of its members
28Cont. Soviet Reaction to Marshall Plan Intended purpose to coordinate actions between Communist Parties under USSR directionIn 1948 the Cominform expelled the Yugoslav Communist party because of the defiance by Marshal Tito of Soviet supremacy.A means of protecting spheres of influenceDissolved 1956
29Q10. Movements of independence within the Communist Block Questions 1-4 LG pg 23,24,25
30Q11. Retrieval Chart: The Berlin Blockade June 1948 – May 1949 Both want to demonstrate their super powers)CausesTruman DocumentConflict of interest on what was to happen to Germany.Soviets did not was a separate West German Government.EventsUSA Congress vote in favor of Marshal AidUSSR view this as an attempt at undermining Soviet influence in Eastern EuropeSteps were made to unit the three western zones into a separate West German Federal Republic (part of the Plan for the economic recovery of non-communist Western Europe.USSR view it as an attempt at creating a new stronger Germany
31Cont. Q11. Retrieval Chart: The Berlin Blockade June Implementation of a new currency (the Deutschmark) in West Germany to replace the old ReichsmarkUSSR see it as an attempt to destroy East German EconomyUSSR introduce their own currency or the eastern bloc1948 Soviets staged a blockade of West Berlin by cutting off all railway and road access to the 3 Western sectors of Berlin.The Soviets hoped to secure economic control of all Berlin and Force the Western powers to drop the creation of a separate West German state
32Cont. Q11. Retrieval Chart: The Berlin Blockade The west did not use military force in breaking the blockade as to do so may provoke WWIII.Instead the West banked on the Berlin Air Lift as a solution to deliver thousands of tons of supplies which were flown daily to BerlinThe USA was not going to be intimidated BrinkmanshipAs the blockade continued into 1949, the governments of the USA & Western Europe formed NATO Collective Security
33Cont. Q11.The soviets were anxious to avoid war and finally lifted the blockade in May 1949 detenteSeptember 1949: West German Federal Republic
34Berlin Airlift Cartoon Many military operations involved sitting around for long periods of time while important preparations were made. The Berlin Airlift was no exception. This was not a relaxing time. Aircrews had to sit around waiting tensely for their flight to begin.Several American cartoonists commented on this problem. One anonymous cartoonist produced the famous Fassberg diary. This was a joke diary of the Berlin Blockade, and ended with the fliers still transporting goods into Berlin in the year 3200!This cartoon was by Sergeant Jake Schuffert. He drew cartoons most days in the Task Force Times. This was the newspaper produced by the US government especially for the Berlin Airlift and blockade.
35Berlin Wall CartoonThis cartoon was drawn by the artist John Jensen for the Sunday Telegraph newspaper, August 26th 1962.Most British newspapers were hostile to Communism and all were critical of the building of the Wall. The Telegraph was particularly hostile to Communism.The context of this cartoon is important. The date was roughly the 1st anniversary of the wall being put up. More importantly, the most high profile victim of the wall was an 18 year old East German boy called Peter Fechter. He was shot trying to cross by East German border guards. He bled to death while East German guards looked on and West German guards were forbidden to go and help him.The figure sitting on the body is Khrushchev.The figure with the quill pen is East German Communist leader Walter Ulbricht.
36Q12. NATO Warsaw Pact Compare the origins, memberships and goals of NATO and the Warsaw Pact. Map these alliancesNATO 1949Evolved as a result of the Berlin Blockade (demonstrated USSR was a direct threat to Western Europe)Designed to provide security & counter any potential act of aggression in particular USSR aggressionStop Soviet expansion with collective resistance (collective defense) Stipulated an attack on one was and attack against all
37Q12. NATO Goal was to present a psychological barrier Secure a military balance with the USSR in EuropeStrengthen USA position in EuropeUSA --- rearm Europe--- assume the leadership roleNever before had the American joined an alliance in peacetimeUN did not give guarantees of peaceBelgium, Luxemburg, Great Britain, France, Netherlands, Denmark, Iceland, Italy, Norway, Canada, USA, Greece, Spain, Turkey
38Q12. con.t.Warsaw Pact 1955Evolved as a result of NATOCome to the aid of other members if attacked by western countriesEast Germany, Romania, Albania, Poland, Hungary, USSR, Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria
39Q13. Other Military Alliances ORGANIZATION OF AMERICAN STATES (OAS)Established to achieve “peace and justice, security, consolidate representative democracy promote American Solidarity.”American dominated designed to resist communism
40Cont. Q13. Other Military Alliances SOUTH EAST ASIA TREATY ORGANIZATION (SEATO)1954Pact---USA, Australia, New Zealand, Philippines, Thailand, Pakistan, Britain, & FranceDefenseProvide for mutual action in the event of an attack or internal subversionOppose further communist gains in South East Asia. A key in the American policy of containmentdissolved 1977
41Dulles secretary of State / Eisenhower Dulles role was to stop what he believed was a Communist plot to take over the worldHelped in the formation of (SEATO)Wanted to “liberate” people from Communist regimesDulles began a policy of “brinkmanship” – ready to go to war at anytime with the USSROne of the pioneers of MAD (mutually assured destruction)Threatened a “massive retaliation” using H-bombs to contain Soviet aggressionDulles's promises of support were mostly overstated---exposed when USSR crushed the Hungarian uprising
42Cont. Q13. Other Military Alliances NORTH AMERICAN AIR DEFENCE COMMANDCanada & USAEstablished nuclear tracking, warning and control stations across the Northern Arctic.Surface – to – air missiles with nuclear warheads introduce1981 NORAD changes its name to North American Aerospace Defense Command (NAADC)
43REASONS FOR BEING IN NATO & NORAD PositiveWe are able to sit with the worlds powers, thus increasing Canadian influence in World affairs and with trading partnersWe are often consulted on European affairs.We are often seen as a middle power that can help to diffuse some volatile situations.We are under he protective umbrella of the worlds super power.
44NEGATIVEOur military contributions are limited and becoming less with the closing of Canadian NATO bases in Germany and the recent announcement of continued downsizing of the Canadian armed forces.These organizations are a restriction on our sovereignty especially by the USA.With the highest per capita debt in the world our money could be better spent paying off the debt or diverting military funds to disadvantaged Canadian.
45Q14. Define the following: Denazification:Removal of sympathizers of the Nazi party from powerDétente:relations of international tensions in an attempt by nations to work together to achieve a peaceful coexistenceMcCarthyism:implied that communism must be stoppedSuggestions that USA government officials were communists
46Q15. Key concepts exercises Questions a-j LG pg 26&27 The western and eastern nations form into a defensive alliances of NATO and the Warsaw Pact respectively.Balance of power / expansionismThe Americans propose a plan of economic aid, called the Marshall Plan to war-torn European nations.ContainmentThe nations of Bulgaria, Romania, Poland, Hungary, Albania, and Czechoslovakia come under the political control of the Soviet Union.Sphere of influences
47Q15. Cont.d. The western Allies conduct a massive airlift of supplies into West Berlin to counter the Soviet blockade of land routes.Containmente. Marshall Tito of Yugoslavia refuses to allow Soviet political and economic controlSovereigntyf. A civil war is Greece threatens the existence of the nation’s democratic government.g. The Soviets successfully detonate an atomic bomb in 1949.Balance of power
48Q15. Cont.h. In October, 156, the Communist party is briefly toppled from power by pro-reform revolutionaries in Hungary.Sovereigntyi. The western allies establish an independent government in West Germany and make plans to rearm GermanyBalance of power, containment, sphere of influencej. President Truman states that the policy of the United States is to “support free peoples” who are resisting communist takeover.containment