4 The USSR had endured two invasions by Germany in less than 30 years The USSR had endured two invasions by Germany in less than 30 years. They wanted to keep Germany weak and control Eastern Europe.
5 The Soviets believed that communism was a superior economic system and that it would eventually replace capitalism throughout the world.
6 Many believed that the Depression had caused WWII. The U. S Many believed that the Depression had caused WWII. The U.S. focused on how to solve economic problems to make nations more stable – * free trade * democracy
7 Feb. 1945 – The Big Three met at Yalta to finalize the war Feb – The Big Three met at Yalta to finalize the war. They had to compromise to allow a communist government to stay in place in Poland. The Soviets insisted that Poland remain “friendly” toward the USSR.
8 Declaration of Liberated Europe – people have the right to choose the government under which they will live and to create democratic institutions of their own choosing.
9 At the end of World War II, Germany was divided into four zones controlled by the Allies. Britain, France, and the U.S. controlled “West Germany”, the U.S.S.R. controlled “East Germany”.
10 As Germany was divided into four zones, so was Berlin.
11 Disagreements over what to do with Germany after the war added to Cold War tensions. Before the war was over, it was evident that the Soviets were not going to allow democratic governments to be established in Eastern Europe.
13 Truman took a strong stand against communism and Stalin Truman took a strong stand against communism and Stalin. He felt that appeasement had not worked with Hitler and he was not willing to try it with Stalin.
14 Potsdam Conference – Truman insisted on fewer industrial reparations against Germany. He informed Stalin of the successful test of an atomic bomb. Stalin had to agree to Allies wishes for rebuilding the German economy.
16 Soviet occupation of Eastern Europe ensured that pro-Soviet governments would be in place in Poland, Romania, Bulgaria, Hungary and Czechoslovakia. These nations became known as “satellite nations” – not part of USSR, but friendly to Soviet policies.
17 Churchill made a speech in 1946 in which he said, “ Churchill made a speech in 1946 in which he said, “ an iron curtain has descended across the continent.” This separated Eastern Europe (communist) from the western democracies of Europe.
19 The Soviets believed that communism and capitalism would always struggle against each other and that communism would eventually take over as the superior system. This did not allow for much cooperation between the US and USSR.
20 The U.S. policy on Communism became containment – keeping communism within its present borders through diplomatic, economic and military actions.
21 Truman Doctrine – the U. S Truman Doctrine – the U.S. would “aid free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or outside pressures.” This addressed the immediate needs in Turkey and Greece, but also committed the U.S. to fight communism worldwide.
26 The Soviets cut off all road and rail traffic to West Berlin The Soviets cut off all road and rail traffic to West Berlin. This began a standoff between the Soviets and the U.S.
27 1948 – Truman ordered the Berlin Airlift 1948 – Truman ordered the Berlin Airlift. For 11 months, cargo planes with food, medicine and coal supplied West Berlin. Over 2 million tons of supplies were sent to West Berlin until Stalin finally ended the blockade on May 12, 1949.
30 Americans and western allies were convinced that the Soviets were bent on conquest. April 1949 – an agreement for mutual defense with western Europe led to NATO.
31 NATO – North Atlantic Treaty Organization NATO – North Atlantic Treaty Organization. These nations agreed to defend each other if attacked. Six years later, the Soviets organized a similar alliance with eastern European nations called the Warsaw Pact.
32 The world became split between “The East” and “The West”.