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Cold War & The Postwar World SS.A.3.4.9; SS.A3.4.10.

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Presentation on theme: "Cold War & The Postwar World SS.A.3.4.9; SS.A3.4.10."— Presentation transcript:

1 Cold War & The Postwar World SS.A.3.4.9; SS.A3.4.10

2 The Yalta Conference The Big Three meet in February 1945 The Big Three meet in February 1945 Roosevelt seeks Soviet help with Japan Roosevelt seeks Soviet help with Japan Promises Japanese land to Stalin in exchange Promises Japanese land to Stalin in exchange All three join new United Nations All three join new United Nations First meeting set for April 1945 in San Francisco First meeting set for April 1945 in San Francisco After war Germany to be split into four parts controlled by US, UK, USSR & France After war Germany to be split into four parts controlled by US, UK, USSR & France Sides divided over setting free elections Sides divided over setting free elections

3 Division of Germany

4 Potsdam and New Struggles July 1945: Potsdam Conference, Germany July 1945: Potsdam Conference, Germany President Truman replaces Roosevelt President Truman replaces Roosevelt Truman demands elections for Europe Truman demands elections for Europe Stalin refuses to allow them, knows better Stalin refuses to allow them, knows better Soviets had lost more than other Allies Soviets had lost more than other Allies Big Three agree to trials of Nazi war criminals in Nuremberg, Germany( ) Big Three agree to trials of Nazi war criminals in Nuremberg, Germany( ) Churchill: iron curtain has descended on the continent splitting Europe east/west Churchill: iron curtain has descended on the continent splitting Europe east/west

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6 Two Super Powers After WWII, USA and USSR emerge as superpowers (military & political power) After WWII, USA and USSR emerge as superpowers (military & political power) Disagreements over how to rebuild Europe Disagreements over how to rebuild Europe 1947:Truman Doctrine 1947:Truman Doctrine U.S. will help any country fight Communism U.S. will help any country fight Communism Fear of the spread of Soviet influence Fear of the spread of Soviet influence

7 The Marshall Plan U.S. Gen. George C. Marshall offers plan to help Europe recover from World War II U.S. Gen. George C. Marshall offers plan to help Europe recover from World War II Soviet satellite states refuse the help Soviet satellite states refuse the help Soviet plans to help failed, not enough money Soviet plans to help failed, not enough money Policy of Containment: United States vow to keep Communism from spreading past its current boundaries, fight against Soviet aggression. Policy of Containment: United States vow to keep Communism from spreading past its current boundaries, fight against Soviet aggression.

8 Division of Germany After war, Germany divided into four parts After war, Germany divided into four parts U.S., U.S.S.R., U.K. & France split control U.S., U.S.S.R., U.K. & France split control Berlin, German capital, also split in four Berlin, German capital, also split in four Berlin was located deep in Soviet East Germany Berlin was located deep in Soviet East Germany West Germany united, Soviets blockade West Germany united, Soviets blockade Soviets block supplies from reaching W. Berlin Soviets block supplies from reaching W. Berlin Berlin Air Lift: supplies are flown into West Berlin by U.S. Air Force Berlin Air Lift: supplies are flown into West Berlin by U.S. Air Force

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10 Cold War Heats Up 1949: Communists take control of China 1949: Communists take control of China Americans worried about Communisms spread Americans worried about Communisms spread Soviets detonate an atomic bomb Soviets detonate an atomic bomb Arms Race: Soviets and Americans build up militaries and weapons, improve bombs Arms Race: Soviets and Americans build up militaries and weapons, improve bombs Both superpowers had the power to destroy each other with nuclear weapons, so neither risked using them; alliances build Both superpowers had the power to destroy each other with nuclear weapons, so neither risked using them; alliances build

11 The Bi-Polar World The world splits into Communist and Anti- Communist alliances: The world splits into Communist and Anti- Communist alliances: NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization): U.S., U.K., Belgium, Lux, France, The Neth., Italy, Denmark, Norway, Portugal, Iceland, Canada, W. Germany, Turkey, Greece NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization): U.S., U.K., Belgium, Lux, France, The Neth., Italy, Denmark, Norway, Portugal, Iceland, Canada, W. Germany, Turkey, Greece Warsaw Pact: U.S.S.R. & Eastern Block Warsaw Pact: U.S.S.R. & Eastern Block By 1950s, USA allied with 42 nations against Communism By 1950s, USA allied with 42 nations against Communism

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13 Berlin Wall Arms race builds steam with hydrogen bomb, ICBMs and stronger nukes Arms race builds steam with hydrogen bomb, ICBMs and stronger nukes 1957: Soviet Sputnik I reaches space 1957: Soviet Sputnik I reaches space USA believes its losing space race/arms race USA believes its losing space race/arms race Nikita Khrushchev, new Soviet leader, sees problem with East Germans escaping to the much richer, freer West Berlin Nikita Khrushchev, new Soviet leader, sees problem with East Germans escaping to the much richer, freer West Berlin Soviets build a wall around West Berlin Soviets build a wall around West Berlin

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