61989 COLD WAR ENDSDISSOLUTION (or breaking apart)of the Soviet Union
7The Cold War [1945-1991]: An Ideological Struggle U.S. & other Western DemocraciesUSSR & Eastern Bloc NationsGOAL spread world-wide CommunismGOAL “Containment” of Communism and spread of Capitalism worldwideHow the war was fought:Espionage [KGB vs. CIA]Arms Race [nuclear escalation]Ideological Competition for the minds and hearts of Third World peoplesProxy Wars
9Fragile Alliance During WWII U.S. upset Stalin had signed the nonaggression pact with Germany in 1939.Stalin blamed the Allies for not invading Nazi occupied Europe earlier than 1944.
10Yalta Conference (Feb 1945): The Beginning of the Cold War? Leaders of U.S., Britain and Soviet Union met in Yalta to discuss post WWII plans.They agreedto divide Germany into occupation zones controlled by Allied military forces.to make Germany pay the Soviet Union for the loss of life and property.the Soviet Union would join the war against Japan.Eastern European countries would have free elections. (U.S. is skeptical of Stalin’s promise)
11Soviets Build a Buffer, 1945Soviet Union wanted to shield itself from another invasion from the West (Poles 17th c, Swedes 18c, French 19c, Germans 20c)Stalin ignored the agreement made during the Yalta Conference and installed communist governments in Albania, Bulgaria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Romania, Poland and Yugoslavia.Europe was divided between the Democratic Capitalist West and the Totalitarian Communist East.
12Prime Minister of Great Britain “Iron Curtain Speech”Prime Minister of Great BritainWinston Churchill“From Stettin in the Baltic, to Trieste in the Adriatic,an iron curtain has descended across the continent.”Winston Churchill, 1946In his speech, Churchill stated thatEurope was divided into two hostilecamps. Stalin viewed Churchill’sspeech as “a call to war with theSoviet Union.”
13The U.S. would give money and aid to countries threatened Truman Doctrine, 1947The U.S. would give money and aid to countries threatenedby communist expansion.Led to a U.S. policy of containment, trying to keep communism within its existing borders.U.S. gave $400,000,000 of aid to Greece and Turkey.
14The Marshall Plan, 1947To help Europe recover from WWII, the U.S. Secretary of State, George Marshall, came up with a plan to provide economic aid to countries who needed it.The hope was that giving food, machinery, and other materials to countries would prevent the spread of communism.The Soviets saw this as a trick on the part of the United States to BUY support, and declined aid.
15Germany is DividedAfter WWII Germany (and the city of Berlin) were divided into four sectionsEach of the Allies controlled a sectionEventually West Germany unified as one countryEast Germany remained under the control of the USSR
16Berlin Blockade and Airlift The Soviets protested the unification of France, Great Britain, and the U.S.’s occupied areas. They set up a blockade of West Berlin.Not allowing any trucks, ships or trains in to bring supplies to the 2 million residents.The Western powers decided to start the Berlin Airlift – for 10 months supplies and food were flown by U.S. & British planes from West Germany into West Berlin.USSR eventually lifted blockade.
17Military Alliances -Both the U.S. and U.S.S.R. wanted security so they created new alliances.U.S. and western European countries joined together to form the North Atlantic Treaty Organization or (NATO).U.S.S.R joined with eastern European countries in an alliance called The Warsaw Pact.NATO, 1949Warsaw, 1955