Presentation on theme: "Chapter 33 Restructuring the Postwar World. Section 1 Cold War: Superpowers Face Off The opposing economic and political philosophies of the US and SU."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 33 Restructuring the Postwar World
Section 1 Cold War: Superpowers Face Off The opposing economic and political philosophies of the US and SU lead to global competition.
ALLIES BECOME ENEMIES SU ‘s nonaggression pact with Germany SU thought the US came into WWII too late
Yalta Conference: A Postwar Plan February 1945 US, Britain, and SU meet
Yalta Conference: A Postwar Plan Continued… Agreed to… Divide Germany into 4 zones Germany would pay war reparations to SU Stalin agreed to join the war against Japan Eastern Europeans (Poland) would have free elections
Creation of the United Nations 50 countries joined the UN. Members protect each other against aggression.
Creation of the United Nations Continued… All 50 make up the General Assembly, there is also an 11- member Security Council. 5 permanent members have Security Council veto power.
Differing US and Soviet Goals USSR lost more lives than the US and their infrastructure was destroyed.
EASTERN EUROPE’S IRON CURTAIN USSR wanting to shield itself from invasion from western countries. USSR disregards the Yalta Conference and formed communist governments on its western boarder.
EASTERN EUROPE’S IRON CURTAIN Continued… July 1945: Potsdam Conference is held. Truman, Stalin and Churchill (FDR had died) USSR was pressed to allow free elections in Poland. Stalin refuses, says capitalism and communism cannot co-exist.
An Iron curtain divides East and West Germany now split in two; East (including Berlin) communist and West democratic.
Churchill in a speech made in Fulton, Missouri stated that the USSR had created an “iron curtain” between Democratic Western Europe and Communist Eastern Europe Churchill in a speech made in Fulton, Missouri stated that the USSR had created an “iron curtain” between Democratic Western Europe and Communist Eastern Europe
UNITED STATES TRIES TO CONTAIN SOVIETS Through the Truman Document a policy of containment was issued. Tried to stop communist expansion. Congress is asked to aid Turkey and Greece.
The Marshall Plan Secretary of State George Marshall proposed aid to needed European countries. $12.5 billion issued.
The Berlin Airlift 1948 France, Britain and the US withdraw from Germany. Their former occupation zones form one country. Berlin was divided into 4 zones. USSR cut West Berlin off from outside influence. It faced starvation.
The Berlin Airlift Continued… From June 1948 – May 1949 Allied planes took off and landed every three minutes in West Berlin. Brought in food and supplies
THE COLD WAR DIVIDES THE WORLD Definition: struggle of U.S., USSR using means short of war. Lasted until 1991.
Superpowers Form Rival Alliances 1949: Because of the Berlin blockade, 10 western European nations, the US and Canada formed NATO. NATO – North Atlantic Treaty Organization, defensive military alliance. An attack on any NATO member would be considered an attack on all members.
Superpowers Form Rival Alliances Continued… 1955: USSR responds by forming the Warsaw Pact. 1961: Soviets build Berlin Wall to separate East and West Berlin.
The Threat of Nuclear War US has atomic bombs 1949 USSR exploded its own atomic weapon Truman issues work on a thermonuclear weapon: the H-bomb
The Threat of Nuclear War Continued… 1953 Eisenhower is president. John Foster Dulles was secretary of State. He issued a policy known as brinkmanship. Definition Willingness to go to the edge of war.
The Cold War in the Skies 1957 USSR creates a ICBM (intercontinental ballistic missile) Sputnik was launched. First unmanned satellite US sends its first missile US wants to be able to fly over USSR.
The Cold War in the Skies Continued.. USSR says no Hits a US spy plane (U-2) over 15 miles high in the sky. US feels a need to catch up to, or surpass the Soviets USSR: first man in space US first man on the moon. U-2 In Flight Khruhchev displays wreckage of the U-2 spy plane shot down over the USSR.
Name of Conference, Who the people are, Main thing discussed
This term was coined in Fulton Missouri by this person. Aid to European Countries fell under this _____ plan. What did the allies form because of the Berlin blockade and what was USSR’s response? John Foster Dullas coined the term_____ and it means what? Truman made this and it helped these countries.