2 VS I.) Conflicts Begin WWII alliance dissolves due to differences 1. Great Britain power falls (third place)2. France rebuilding from the warWWII leaves two “Super Powers”1. Soviet Union = Communist2. United States = DemocracyVS
3 Outcome:struggle between Communism and Democracycalled the Cold War (USSR=East, USA = West)Definition of Cold War: political tension and military rivalry between nations that stops short of full-scale war
4 The Ideological Struggle (Beliefs) Soviet & Eastern Bloc Nations [“Iron Curtain”]US & the Western DemocraciesGOAL “Containment” of Communism & the eventual collapse of the Communist world.GOAL spread world-wide CommunismThe Ideological Struggle(Beliefs)
7 II.) The Iron Curtain Emerges A. Soviet Union wanted to protect itself from any future attacks Result: Stalin creates the Iron Curtain (communist nations along western border of the Soviet Union)“Term Iron Curtain Coined By Winston Churchill”
9 III.) Truman DoctrineA. Civil War breaks out in Greece 1. Communists vs. Conservatives B. March 2, 1947 President Truman issues the Truman Doctrine (communism a threat and must support free peoples resisting threat) Outcome: Congress provides money & assistance to Greece to stop rebellion
10 The Truman Doctrine in March promised that the USA “would support free peoples who are resisting subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures”.Promised to provide economic and military aid to oppose the spread of communismSent millions of dollars in aid to Greece and Turkey It signalled the end of “isolationst” policies.
11 What were the agreements made during the war that helped lead to the Cold War? Tehran – Invade alreadyPotsdam – Unconditional SurrenderYalta – The Big Three make the BIG decisionsSplit up Germany into four sectorsUSSR in UN“I promise to support democracy” StalinSoviets will help with Japan
12 IV.) Marshall Plan A. Western leaders fear poverty & destruction of WWII might lead to communismB. Marshall Plan (Economic Assistance plan by U.S. that provided money to nations in Europe to rebuild & foster cooperation)Outcome: Western Europe recovers(The Soviet Union (USSR) prevented Eastern European countries from receiving American money.)
13 C. Policy of Containment: prevent the further spread of communism
14 V.) Cold War in EuropeA. In 1947 Soviets create Cominform (unify all European communist parties) B. Communism spreads: : Czechoslovakia : Yugoslavia
15 Divided Germany Iron Curtain – A term used by Winston Churchill to describe theseparating ofThose communistlands of EastEurope from theWest.Divided Germany
16 Improve your knowledge Divided BerlinThe Russians took very high casualties to capture Berlin in May They spent the early occupation trying to take over all zones of the city but were stopped by German democrats such as Willy Brandt and Konrad Adenauer. Reluctantly the Russians had to admit the Americans, French and British to their respective zones.
17 VI.) Division of Germany A. June 1948: Soviets blockade Berlin Result: Berlin Airlift: U.S. and Britain provide food and supplies by air drops to West Berlin Outcome: Soviets lift blockade May 1949
18 B. May 1949: Federal Republic of Germany created (West Germany) C B. May 1949: Federal Republic of Germany created (West Germany) C. October 1949: German Democratic Republic created (East Germany)
19 VII.) Cold War Alliances Need for alliances begin:= Mao Zedong defeats Chiang Kai-shekin Chinese Civil WarOutcome: China is now Communist!!
20 2. The Soviet Union explodes its first A-bomb in 1949. Outcome: Now there are two nations with nuclear weapons!
21 Nuclear tensionsThe USA had shown its atomic power when it exploded the A-bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki at the end of World War 2.The USSR was also developing atomic weapons/bombs.The USA and the USSR were in competition with each other to have the best, most powerful weapons in the world – this was called the Arms Race.
22 Write a quick analysis of this cartoon: Downloaded fromWrite a quick analysis of this cartoon:
23 Improve your knowledge The nuclear bomb gave America a lead which was expected to last at least 5 years. The rapid Russian development of nuclear technology, helped by the work of the “atom spies” was a shock. Significantly, Russia hurriedly declared war against Japan at the beginning of August 1945 and rushed to advance into Asia to stake out a position for the post- war settlement. This helped make both the Korean and Vietnamese conflicts more likely.
24 NATO: 12 Western nations sign a political and military alliance 1 NATO: 12 Western nations sign a political and military alliance 1. if one nation is attacked then all members will respond
25 Warsaw Pact: Eastern Bloc nations form a mutual defense alliance