Presentation on theme: "3/25 Focus: Important Terms: Do Now:"— Presentation transcript:
13/25 Focus: Important Terms: Do Now: The opposing economic and political philosophies of the democratic United States and the communist Soviet Union led to a nearly half century conflict known as the Cold War .Important Terms:Iron CurtainDo Now:Which nation suffered the greatest number of causalities during WWII?
3Cold WarA continuing state of tension & hostilities between the United States and Soviet Uniondifferences in political and economic philosophiesEnded in 1991 with collapse of communist government in the Soviet Union
4Competing Philosophies of the Cold War The United StatesSoviet UnionCapitalist economic system; private ownership of the means of productionCommunist System; Command economy; state control of the means of production; wealth sharedCommunist Party established totalitarian government with no opposing political partiesRepresentative democracy where people elect representatives from competing political parties
5Competing Aims of the Cold War The United StatesSoviet UnionEncourage democracy in other countries to prevent spread of communismEncourage the spread of communism throughout the worldGain access to raw materials and markets to fuel industryRebuild Soviet economy using Eastern Europe's industrial equipment and resourcesRebuild European governments to promote stability and create new markets for U.S. goodsControl Eastern Europe to protect Soviet borders and balance U.S. influence in W. Europe
6Origins of the Cold War The Yalta Conference (Feb. 1945) Meeting between Allies to make post war plansDecided Germany would be divided into 4 zonesFree elections would be held in occupied zonesNew governments would be determined by the people
7Origins of the Cold War Stalin kept his troops in Eastern Europe Cancels electionsSets up communist governments in territories captured by the Soviet troops
8The Iron CurtainDescribed an imaginary line that divided the communist countries of Eastern Europe with the free countries of Western Europe
9The Iron Curtain“From Stettin in the Baltic, to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the continent. Behind that line lies the ancient capitals of Central and Eastern Europe.” Sir Winston Churchill, 1946
11Points for DiscussionWhat is the difference between a “cold war” and a “hot war”?What was the purpose of the Yalta Conference?What did the Iron Curtain refer to?
123/26 Focus: Important Terms: Do Now: The United States and the Soviet Union had cooperated to win WWII but conflicts in ways of thinking and mutual distrust led to the development of the Cold War.Important Terms:ContainmentDo Now:What is the difference between a “cold war” and a “hot war”
13Containment Western Democracies feared the spread of communism Stalin had established satellite nations of the Soviet Union in E. EuropeCommunist governments under the influence of the Soviet UnionStalin began putting pressure on Greece and Turkey
15ContainmentU.S. President Harry Truman established the Truman Doctrine in 1947Economic and military program designed to block Soviet influence and expansion of communismUnited States would try to contain communism to areas already under Soviet control
16ContainmentThe United States pledged to provide assistance to any nation resisting Soviet and communist expansionProvided $400 million to Greece and Turkey to resist communism
17The Marshall PlanU.S. Plan to provide massive economic aid to help European nations rebuild after WWIIDeveloped by Sec. of State George Marshallstrengthen democratic governmentsProvide stabilityLessen the appeal of communism
20Points for DiscussionWhat was President Truman’s policy for dealing with spread of Communism?What was the Marshall Plan?What was the western response to Stalin’s blockade of Berlin?
213/27 Focus: Important Terms: Do Now: During the Cold War, the Soviet Union and the United States competed for power and influence with confrontations between the East and West becoming increasingly severe.Important Terms:Blockade, Defense Pact, RepressionDo Now:What was President Truman’s policy for dealing with spread of Communism?
22Berlin BlockadeStalin blocked all road and rail traffic into French, British, and U.S. controlled sections of Berlin in 1948Berlin was located in Soviet controlled section of GermanyControl of city was divided between Allies
23Berlin AirliftWestern nations responded by flying in supplies to Berlin2,250,000 tons of goods including food and coal were delivered by air
24Berlin AirliftStalin was forced to lift the blockade
25Crisis over GermanyFederal Republic of Germany formed in 1949 (West Germany)Formed in areas occupied by Britain, France, and U.S.W. Germans wrote a new constitution and setup a democratic governmentReceived American help to rebuild economy
26Crisis over Germany Stalin feared a strong, united Germany Wanted to keep Germany divided
27Crisis over GermanyEast German government built a wall between East Berlin and West Berlin in 1961Keep E. Germans from fleeing to the WestE. German soldiers ordered to shoot anyone trying to escape
28NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization United States and other European democracies formed mutual defense pact in 1949United StatesBelgiumBritainCanadaDenmarkFranceIcelandItalyLuxemburgNetherlandsNorwayPortugal1952: Greece & Turkey1955: West Germany1983: Spain
29Warsaw PactMutual defense pact between the Soviet Union and its satellite nations in 1955U. S. S. R.AlbaniaBulgariaCzechoslovakiaEast GermanyHungaryPolandRomania
31Soviet RepressionSoviets used military force to crush revolts and opposition to communist control of Eastern EuropeHungarian Revolt (1956)Czechoslovakian Revolt (1968)
32Nuclear Arms RaceThe United States and the Soviet Union built more and more nuclear weapons in an effort to surpass each others military strengthSoviet Union developed an atomic bomb in 1949Started the nuclear arms race