Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

A continuing state of tension & hostilities between the United States and Soviet Union – 1945-1991 – differences in political and economic philosophies.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "A continuing state of tension & hostilities between the United States and Soviet Union – 1945-1991 – differences in political and economic philosophies."— Presentation transcript:

1

2

3 A continuing state of tension & hostilities between the United States and Soviet Union – 1945-1991 – differences in political and economic philosophies – Ended in 1991 with collapse of communist government in the Soviet Union

4 Competing Philosophies of the Cold War The United States Soviet Union Capitalist economic system; private ownership of the means of production Representative democracy where people elect representatives from competing political parties Communist System; Command economy; state control of the means of production; wealth shared Communist Party established totalitarian government with no opposing political parties

5 Competing Aims of the Cold War The United States Soviet Union Encourage democracy in other countries to prevent spread of communism Gain access to raw materials and markets to fuel industry Rebuild European governments to promote stability and create new markets for U.S. goods Encourage the spread of communism throughout the world Rebuild Soviet economy using Eastern Europe's industrial equipment and resources Control Eastern Europe to protect Soviet borders and balance U.S. influence in W. Europe

6 The Yalta Conference (Feb. 1945) – Meeting between Allies to make post war plans – Decided Germany would be divided into 4 zones – Free elections would be held in occupied zones New governments would be determined by the people

7 Stalin kept his troops in Eastern Europe – Cancels elections – Sets up communist governments in territories captured by the Soviet troops

8 Described an imaginary line that divided the communist countries of Eastern Europe with the free countries of Western Europe

9 “From Stettin in the Baltic, to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the continent. Behind that line lies the ancient capitals of Central and Eastern Europe.” -- Sir Winston Churchill, 1946

10

11 What is the difference between a “cold war” and a “hot war”? What was the purpose of the Yalta Conference? What did the Iron Curtain refer to?

12

13 Western Democracies feared the spread of communism – Stalin had established satellite nations of the Soviet Union in E. Europe Communist governments under the influence of the Soviet Union – Stalin began putting pressure on Greece and Turkey

14

15 U.S. President Harry Truman established the Truman Doctrine in 1947 – Economic and military program designed to block Soviet influence and expansion of communism – United States would try to contain communism to areas already under Soviet control

16 The United States pledged to provide assistance to any nation resisting Soviet and communist expansion – Provided $400 million to Greece and Turkey to resist communism

17 U.S. Plan to provide massive economic aid to help European nations rebuild after WWII – Developed by Sec. of State George Marshall – strengthen democratic governments – Provide stability – Lessen the appeal of communism

18

19

20 What was President Truman’s policy for dealing with spread of Communism? What was the Marshall Plan? What was the western response to Stalin’s blockade of Berlin?

21

22 Stalin blocked all road and rail traffic into French, British, and U.S. controlled sections of Berlin in 1948 – Berlin was located in Soviet controlled section of Germany – Control of city was divided between Allies

23 Western nations responded by flying in supplies to Berlin – 2,250,000 tons of goods including food and coal were delivered by air

24 Stalin was forced to lift the blockade

25 Federal Republic of Germany formed in 1949 (West Germany) – Formed in areas occupied by Britain, France, and U.S. – W. Germans wrote a new constitution and setup a democratic government – Received American help to rebuild economy

26 Stalin feared a strong, united Germany – Wanted to keep Germany divided

27 East German government built a wall between East Berlin and West Berlin in 1961 – Keep E. Germans from fleeing to the West – E. German soldiers ordered to shoot anyone trying to escape

28 North Atlantic Treaty Organization – United States and other European democracies formed mutual defense pact in 1949  United States  Belgium  Britain  Canada  Denmark  France  Iceland  Italy  Luxemburg  Netherlands  Norway  Portugal  1952: Greece & Turkey  1955: West Germany  1983: Spain

29 Mutual defense pact between the Soviet Union and its satellite nations in 1955 U. S. S. R. Albania Bulgaria Czechoslovakia East Germany Hungary Poland Romania

30

31 Soviets used military force to crush revolts and opposition to communist control of Eastern Europe – Hungarian Revolt (1956) – Czechoslovakian Revolt (1968)

32 The United States and the Soviet Union built more and more nuclear weapons in an effort to surpass each others military strength – Soviet Union developed an atomic bomb in 1949 Started the nuclear arms race

33 32,040 warheads, 1966 45,000 warheads, 1986

34 The Soviet Union launches Sputnik in 1947 The first man made satellite

35 Americans feared that the U.S. was falling behind the Soviets in science – NASA created in response to the Soviet’s launch of Sputnik

36 How did the western democracies respond to Stalin’s blockade of West Berlin? What was the purpose of NATO? What was the Warsaw Pact?


Download ppt "A continuing state of tension & hostilities between the United States and Soviet Union – 1945-1991 – differences in political and economic philosophies."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google