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3/25 Focus: Important Terms: Do Now:

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1 3/25 Focus: Important Terms: Do Now:
The opposing economic and political philosophies of the democratic United States and the communist Soviet Union led to a nearly half century conflict known as the Cold War . Important Terms: Iron Curtain Do Now: Which nation suffered the greatest number of causalities during WWII?

2 The Cold War

3 Cold War A continuing state of tension & hostilities between the United States and Soviet Union differences in political and economic philosophies Ended in 1991 with collapse of communist government in the Soviet Union

4 Competing Philosophies of the Cold War
The United States Soviet Union Capitalist economic system; private ownership of the means of production Communist System; Command economy; state control of the means of production; wealth shared Communist Party established totalitarian government with no opposing political parties Representative democracy where people elect representatives from competing political parties

5 Competing Aims of the Cold War
The United States Soviet Union Encourage democracy in other countries to prevent spread of communism Encourage the spread of communism throughout the world Gain access to raw materials and markets to fuel industry Rebuild Soviet economy using Eastern Europe's industrial equipment and resources Rebuild European governments to promote stability and create new markets for U.S. goods Control Eastern Europe to protect Soviet borders and balance U.S. influence in W. Europe

6 Origins of the Cold War The Yalta Conference (Feb. 1945)
Meeting between Allies to make post war plans Decided Germany would be divided into 4 zones Free elections would be held in occupied zones New governments would be determined by the people

7 Origins of the Cold War Stalin kept his troops in Eastern Europe
Cancels elections Sets up communist governments in territories captured by the Soviet troops

8 The Iron Curtain Described an imaginary line that divided the communist countries of Eastern Europe with the free countries of Western Europe

9 The Iron Curtain “From Stettin in the Baltic, to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the continent. Behind that line lies the ancient capitals of Central and Eastern Europe.” Sir Winston Churchill, 1946


11 Points for Discussion What is the difference between a “cold war” and a “hot war”? What was the purpose of the Yalta Conference? What did the Iron Curtain refer to?

12 3/26 Focus: Important Terms: Do Now:
The United States and the Soviet Union had cooperated to win WWII but conflicts in ways of thinking and mutual distrust led to the development of the Cold War. Important Terms: Containment Do Now: What is the difference between a “cold war” and a “hot war”

13 Containment Western Democracies feared the spread of communism
Stalin had established satellite nations of the Soviet Union in E. Europe Communist governments under the influence of the Soviet Union Stalin began putting pressure on Greece and Turkey


15 Containment U.S. President Harry Truman established the Truman Doctrine in 1947 Economic and military program designed to block Soviet influence and expansion of communism United States would try to contain communism to areas already under Soviet control

16 Containment The United States pledged to provide assistance to any nation resisting Soviet and communist expansion Provided $400 million to Greece and Turkey to resist communism

17 The Marshall Plan U.S. Plan to provide massive economic aid to help European nations rebuild after WWII Developed by Sec. of State George Marshall strengthen democratic governments Provide stability Lessen the appeal of communism



20 Points for Discussion What was President Truman’s policy for dealing with spread of Communism? What was the Marshall Plan? What was the western response to Stalin’s blockade of Berlin?

21 3/27 Focus: Important Terms: Do Now:
During the Cold War, the Soviet Union and the United States competed for power and influence with confrontations between the East and West becoming increasingly severe. Important Terms: Blockade, Defense Pact, Repression Do Now: What was President Truman’s policy for dealing with spread of Communism?

22 Berlin Blockade Stalin blocked all road and rail traffic into French, British, and U.S. controlled sections of Berlin in 1948 Berlin was located in Soviet controlled section of Germany Control of city was divided between Allies

23 Berlin Airlift Western nations responded by flying in supplies to Berlin 2,250,000 tons of goods including food and coal were delivered by air

24 Berlin Airlift Stalin was forced to lift the blockade

25 Crisis over Germany Federal Republic of Germany formed in 1949 (West Germany) Formed in areas occupied by Britain, France, and U.S. W. Germans wrote a new constitution and setup a democratic government Received American help to rebuild economy

26 Crisis over Germany Stalin feared a strong, united Germany
Wanted to keep Germany divided

27 Crisis over Germany East German government built a wall between East Berlin and West Berlin in 1961 Keep E. Germans from fleeing to the West E. German soldiers ordered to shoot anyone trying to escape

28 NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization
United States and other European democracies formed mutual defense pact in 1949 United States Belgium Britain Canada Denmark France Iceland Italy Luxemburg Netherlands Norway Portugal 1952: Greece & Turkey 1955: West Germany 1983: Spain

29 Warsaw Pact Mutual defense pact between the Soviet Union and its satellite nations in 1955 U. S. S. R. Albania Bulgaria Czechoslovakia East Germany Hungary Poland Romania


31 Soviet Repression Soviets used military force to crush revolts and opposition to communist control of Eastern Europe Hungarian Revolt (1956) Czechoslovakian Revolt (1968)

32 Nuclear Arms Race The United States and the Soviet Union built more and more nuclear weapons in an effort to surpass each others military strength Soviet Union developed an atomic bomb in 1949 Started the nuclear arms race

33 Nuclear Arms Race 45,000 warheads, 1986 32,040 warheads, 1966

34 Space Race The Soviet Union launches Sputnik in 1947
The first man made satellite

35 Space Race Americans feared that the U.S. was falling behind the Soviets in science NASA created in response to the Soviet’s launch of Sputnik

36 Points for Discussion How did the western democracies respond to Stalin’s blockade of West Berlin? What was the purpose of NATO? What was the Warsaw Pact?

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