TWO CLASHING SYSTEMS EAST: communist one-party state, nationalisation, collective farms, refusing Marshall aid, reparations WEST: multiparty democracy, elections, free enterprise, new currency, Marshall aid, economic recovery, 3 zones united
'Berlin Airlift' The West responded to this by launching the 'Berlin Airlift'. Stalin had not closed three air lanes through to Berlin, and so for nearly a year the West supplied West Berlin with all it needed.
Formal division of Germany After the Berlin Blockade ended (’49), Germany formally divided into two separate states
DFR The three western zones became the German Federal Republic (or West Germany), with Bonn as capital.
DDR The Soviet zone became the German Democratic Republic (or East Germany), with East Berlin as its capital.
Alliance blocs emerged as a result of the Cold War The tension between the superpowers in Germany led to the creation of two military blocs.
NATO USA formed military alliance with its western European allies, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization Headquarters: Paris later Brussels 1966: France withdrew
Warsaw Pact Military alliance between USSR and the eastern European satellites Hungary(1956)+ Czechoslovakia(1968) tried to withdraw (revolts crushed)
Brezhnev Doctrine defined a Soviet bloc country as a socialist one- party state belonging to the Warsaw Pact. It spelt out the right of the Warsaw Pact to intervene in any member state which threatened to break away from the bloc and thus endanger it.
The spheres of influence of the superpowers stretched beyond Europe SEATO CENTO SEATO CENTO
SEATO The West formed other anti-communist alliances. Three Asian nations (the Philippines, Thailand and Pakistan) joined USA, Britain, France, Australia and New Zealand to form the South East Asia Treaty Organization) in 1954. Other newly-independent Asian states refused to be drawn in.
CURRENT MILITARY ALLIANCES NATO still exists Warsaw Pact was dissolved in 1991 All former Warsaw pact member have joined NATO with the exception of Russia.
THE BERLIN CRISES 1948-1949 Berlin Blockade 1953 Uprising in East Berlin 1958-1960 U2 Spy plane incident 1961 Berlin Wall 1948-1949 Berlin Blockade 1953 Uprising in East Berlin 1958-1960 U2 Spy plane incident 1961 Berlin Wall
1953 BERLIN UPRISING Protests by workers in East Berlin Demands: greater political and economic freedom, union with West Germany, end of communism, withdrawal of Soviet forces Crushed by Red Army 600 executed 300 000 fled Result: some reforms, East Germany allowed greater autonomy from USSR
1958-1960: Further tensions 1958: Khrushchev demand West to hand over West Berlin West ignored demands Khrushchev did nothing to enforce them Seemed that relations were improving 1960 Eisenhower and Khrushchev planned to meet in Paris to discuss Berlin’s future 1958: Khrushchev demand West to hand over West Berlin West ignored demands Khrushchev did nothing to enforce them Seemed that relations were improving 1960 Eisenhower and Khrushchev planned to meet in Paris to discuss Berlin’s future
1960: Spy plane incident USSR cancelled meeting, because a US U2 spy plane was shot down while photographing military installations USA denied involvement USSR provided proof Eisenhower refused to apologise Increased tensions USSR cancelled meeting, because a US U2 spy plane was shot down while photographing military installations USA denied involvement USSR provided proof Eisenhower refused to apologise Increased tensions
Most notorious symbol of the Cold War: The Wall 1961
Reasons 1961 about 2 thousand people a week were 'voting with their feet' and opting for the higher standard of living and greater freedom of the West.
Soviet reaction The USSR viewed this as another challenge to Soviet control in Eastern Europe. In August 1961, the East German authorities, with Soviet backing, built the Berlin Wall to divide East and West Berlin.
The Wall This high, fortified wall, with its machine-gun posts and searchlights, stopped the flow of refugees. West Berlin: island of capitalism and democracy surrounded by East Germany.
Cold War Symbol Many died trying to cross this notorious Cold War symbol