Presentation on theme: "Warm Up 1.From prior knowledge compare and contrast the French and American revolutions: people, impact, cause, end result."— Presentation transcript:
Warm Up 1.From prior knowledge compare and contrast the French and American revolutions: people, impact, cause, end result
CH 21: REVOLUTIONARY CHANGES IN THE ATLANTIC WORLD,
I. Prelude to Revolution: The 18 th century crises – A. Colonial Wars and Fiscal Crisis – European countries in the 1600s are competing over possessions in the Americas – Seven Years War –French are defeated by British and are forced to give colonial possessions in the Americas and in India – Cost of War in Europe forces governments to try to find new sources of revenue and the people are upset – Ideas from the Enlightenment fuel some people to question and protest the new collections of revenue
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– B. Enlightenment and the Old Order – John Locke view of government: governments were created to protect the people emphasizing the importance of individual rights – Jean Jacques Rousseau: will of the people was sacred, people should have a say on how government is run – Nobility view on enlightenment ideas: some nobility thrived on enlightenment – Using enlightenment ideas to reform government, legal systems, taxes, and economies (Catherine the Great of Russia, Frederick the Great of Prussia)
– C. Folk Cultures and Popular Protest – Most people do not share the Enlightenment ideas and stay loyal to rulers – Monarchs during the 18 th century try to increase and centralize power by collection of tax
II. American Revolution – A. Frontiers and Taxes – 2 problems British face in the colonies: – danger of war with the Amerindians as colonist continue to push westward – money try to raise taxes on colonist – One way to raise taxes—Stamp Act of 1765 – 1765 – Stamp Act = colonists had to pay taxes on newspapers, legal documents, all other public papers
Maker: Benjamin Wilson Date: March 18, 1766 One of the most famous and popular of the political satires commenting on the Stamp Act, this print actually celebrates the end of the tax. An instant success, the print became one of the most copied satirical prints of the period. The print depicts a funeral procession composed of supporters of the act carrying a small coffin containing the remains of the bill toward an open vault. The vault has been prepared for the burial of all unjust acts that would alienate Englishmen. Leading the procession and preparing to deliver the funeral eulogy is the Reverend W. Scott, who is followed by the mourners: Grenville (carrying the coffin), Bute, Bedford, and Temple, some of the same Englishmen who were responsible for passing the act. By setting the action on a dock, Wilson is able to show the large unshipped cargoes destined for America that accumulated during the period when the act was in force. Ships labeled "Conway," "Rockingham," and "Grafton" that represent the Parliamentary leaders responsible for the repeal of the bill now stand ready to carry the goods to America. Stamps just returned from America are also stacked on the wharf.
"This is the place to affix the stamp" During the Stamp Act crisis of 1765 one American newspaper proposed, with biting humor, that the hated British stamps take the form of the skull and crossbones.
“No Taxation Without Representation!” – The British government decided it should stop demanding the use of special stamps and cancelled the law in February The colonists wanted a say in Parliament – Colonists called for a boycott of British goods, which led Parliament to repeal the act – The next year Britain placed new taxes on glass, paper, paints, and tea leading to the Boston Massacre of 1770 – This led to merchants in Boston calling for a new boycott and the British sent troops to keep order Boston Massacre – British shoot and kill five men
Boston Massacre March 5, 1770 Tensions between the American colonists and the British were already running high in the early spring of Late in the afternoon, on March 5, a crowd of jeering Bostonians slinging snowballs gathered around a small group of British soldiers guarding the Boston Customs House. The soldiers became enraged after one of them had been hit, and they fired into the crowd, even though they were under orders not to fire. The soldiers shot into a crowd of civilians killing three and injuring eight others, two of them mortally.
– East India Company had a monopoly on tea to the colonies – British response to the Boston tea party: closed the port of Boston
– B. The Course of a Revolution – First Continental Congress met in Philadelphia in 1774 to list their grievances against Britain – Continental Congress: printed currency and organized an army – British controlled cities but not the countryside – French aided the colonist in 1778 including naval support – Treaty of Paris ended war in 1783 giving independence to colonies
– C. Construction of Republic – Articles of Confederation served as a constitution for the US – 1787 Constitutional Convention wrote new constitution – Impact of new constitution: established a democratic government giving only a small population of adult males votes and protected slavery
III. French Revolution – A. French Society and Fiscal Crisis – Three estates in French society: – First Estate = Catholic clergy Made up 1% of the population, owned 10% of the land, and paid no taxes – Second Estate = nobility Made up 2% of the population, owned 35% of the land, paid some fees, but no taxes Got the best positions in gov’t and military – Third Estate = peasants, bourgeoisie (middle class) Made up 97% of the population, paid all the taxes
– Wars in the 1700s (Seven Years War) drove France into debt and new taxes had to be enacted – B. Protest Turns to Revolution – Estates General meets to raise taxes – Third Estates establishes National Assembly setting up their own government – 3 rd estate believes this is only way to have a say
– C. Terror – 1792 King Louis and Queen Marie Antoinette attempt to flee – Louis is executed and Robespierre comes to power – Committee of Public Safety served as his power: establishing laws and serving the national defense – The National Convention votes, arrests, and executes Robespierre
– D. Reaction and Rise of Napoleon – After Robespierre’s death the Directory is established – Directory is reactionary but too weak – The military of France takes control led by Napoleon Bonaparte – No single nation could defeat Napoleon – 1812 war with Russia failed; in response European nations collectively attacked France – 1814 Napoleon was defeated at Waterloo in Belgium
Duke of Wellington Irish soldier who fought for the British army Real name was Arthur Wellesley
IV. Revolution Spreads – A. Haitian Revolution – French colony of Saint Domingue is based on brutal slave treatment – Tossaint L’Ouverture takes colony in 1794 – B. Congress of Vienna – European representatives met in Vienna to bring back order in Europe – Congress would reestablish and safeguard the conservative order of Europe – Impact of the Congress of Vienna: restored French monarchy, redrew boundaries of Europe
Toussaint Louverture tried to rebuild the collapsed economy of Haiti and reestablish commercial contacts with the United States and Great Britain. His rule permitted the colony a taste of freedom which, after his death in exile, was gradually destroyed during the successive reigns of a series of despots.United StatesGreat Britain abolished slavery, and secured native control over the colony in 1797 while nominally governor of the colony. He expelled the French commissioner Léger-Félicité Sonthonax, as well as the British armies; invaded Santo Domingo to free the slaves there; and wrote a constitution naming himself governor-for- life that established a new polity for the colony.colonyLéger-Félicité SonthonaxSanto Domingopolity
– Impact of Congress of Vienna: – Principle of Legitimacy = monarchs or families who had been in power prior to Napoleon and the French Revolution were restored to power – Principle of Intervention = the great powers had the right to send armies into countries where there were revolutions in order to put down the revolution and restore legitimate monarchs
– C. Nationalism and Reform – Sense of identity and unity as a people – People owe loyalty to nation rather than dynasties or political units – Each nationality should have its own gov’t – Was seen as a threat to the existing political order and was strongly opposed by conservatives – Countries are now uniting and giving people more privileges – Self determination and democratic reforms led to revolutions in 1848.
V. Comparative Perspectives – American Revolution Taxation led to colonies to fight for independence American government reflect Enlightenment ideals – French Revolution Revolutions in France were more radical and more violent Revolutions in France led to Haitian Revolution Chaos led to the rise of Napoleon – Aftermath Nationalism and Liberalism arise out of revolutions New social classes arise demanding a new political order