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UNIT 7 Chapter 23 – The French Revolution & Napoleon THE FRENCH REVOLUTION.

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Presentation on theme: "UNIT 7 Chapter 23 – The French Revolution & Napoleon THE FRENCH REVOLUTION."— Presentation transcript:

1 UNIT 7 Chapter 23 – The French Revolution & Napoleon THE FRENCH REVOLUTION

2 Napoleon Bonaparte crossing the Great Saint Bernard pass in Painting, Jacques Louis David. The French Revolution establishes a new political order, Napoleon Bonaparte gains and loses an empire, and European states forge a balance of power. SECTION 1 SECTION 2 SECTION 3 SECTION 4 Revolution Brings Reform and Terror Napoleon Forges an Empire Napoleon’s Empire Collapses SECTION 5 The Congress of Vienna

3 OBJECTIVES CORE OBJECTIVE: CORE OBJECTIVE: Analyze the French Revolution, the rise and fall of Napoleon, and the Congress of Vienna. Objective 7.1: Summarize the factors that led to the French Revolution Objective 7.2: Explain the developments in French government that led to the Reign of Terror Objective 7.3: Summarize how Napoleon restored order in France. Objective 7.4: Summarize Napoleon’s defeat, comeback, and final downfall along with the impact of the Congress of Vienna.

4 IMPORTANT LEADERS Louis XVI: King of France (1774 – 1792) Louis XVI: King of France (1774 – 1792) Marie Antoinette: Queen of France, wife to Louis XVI Marie Antoinette: Queen of France, wife to Louis XVI Maximillian Robespierre: Influential leader of the Revolution, Jacobins, & the Reign of Terror Maximillian Robespierre: Influential leader of the Revolution, Jacobins, & the Reign of Terror Jean-Paul Marat: newspaper writer who supported radical revolution in France Jean-Paul Marat: newspaper writer who supported radical revolution in France Georges Danton: early leader of the revolutionary Girondist group that wanted to end the power of the King Georges Danton: early leader of the revolutionary Girondist group that wanted to end the power of the King Girondists were a small group of the Legislative Assembly that wanted to get rid of Louis XVI, also led the war against Austria Girondists were a small group of the Legislative Assembly that wanted to get rid of Louis XVI, also led the war against Austria Napoleon : became dictator of France after the Revolution Napoleon : became dictator of France after the Revolution

5 Chapter 23 SECTION 1 – The French Revolution Begins Economic and social inequalities in the Old Regime help cause the French Revolution.

6 THE OLD ORDER The Old Regime The Old Regime Old Regime — political (estate) system in France during the 1770s Old Regime — political (estate) system in France during the 1770s Estates — three social classes of France’s Old Regime Estates — three social classes of France’s Old Regime The Privileged Estates The Privileged Estates First Estate — Catholic clergy — own 10 percent land, pay few taxes; provides aid/education to the poor First Estate — Catholic clergy — own 10 percent land, pay few taxes; provides aid/education to the poor Second Estate — rich nobles — 2 percent population, own 20 percent land; hate the Enlightenment Second Estate — rich nobles — 2 percent population, own 20 percent land; hate the Enlightenment

7 THE THIRD ESTATE The Third Estate (commoners) - 97 percent of people – are further separated into three groups The Third Estate (commoners) - 97 percent of people – are further separated into three groups Have few privileges, pay heavy taxes, want change Have few privileges, pay heavy taxes, want change #1 Bourgeoisie (Middle Class), owners, merchants, bankers #1 Bourgeoisie (Middle Class), owners, merchants, bankers #2 urban workers #2 urban workers #3 peasants, 80% of pop. #3 peasants, 80% of pop.

8 WHAT DOES THIS REPRESENT?

9 MONEY TROUBLES Economic Troubles Economic Troubles High taxes and rising costs damage economy by 1780s High taxes and rising costs damage economy by 1780s The Seven Years War and aid to the American Revolution had also increased debt The Seven Years War and aid to the American Revolution had also increased debt King Louis XVI and his wife Marie Antoinette known for extravagance King Louis XVI and his wife Marie Antoinette known for extravagance French King Louis XVI & wife Marie Antoinette double nation’s debt; banks refuse to lend more money in 1786 French King Louis XVI & wife Marie Antoinette double nation’s debt; banks refuse to lend more money in 1786 MADAME DEFICIT

10 THE MOOD IN 1780’S FRANCE The Third Estate is burdened with heavy taxes while the nobility pay none The Third Estate is burdened with heavy taxes while the nobility pay none Crop failures have made the price of bread double; many face starvation Crop failures have made the price of bread double; many face starvation Enlightenment ideas have spread about having the power to change unfit government Enlightenment ideas have spread about having the power to change unfit government The King has mismanaged govt. money, wants to increase taxes while he throws lavish parties The King has mismanaged govt. money, wants to increase taxes while he throws lavish parties

11 ESTATES-GENERAL  Louis’s solution was to tax the nobility  The 2 nd Estate forces a meeting  Louis calls Estates-General — meeting of representatives from all three estates in May 1789 to discuss new taxes  This is the first Estates-General in 175 years  Under the rules, each estate gets one vote

12 REVOLUTION BEGINS The National Assembly The National Assembly Third Estate has little power under old rules; they insist all estates meet together and each delegate gets a vote; King rejects it Third Estate has little power under old rules; they insist all estates meet together and each delegate gets a vote; King rejects it Third Estate sets up National Assembly — new legislature to make reforms; June 1789 Third Estate sets up National Assembly — new legislature to make reforms; June 1789 Tennis Court Oath — Third Estate decides to write new constitution for France after being locked out of Estates- General Tennis Court Oath — Third Estate decides to write new constitution for France after being locked out of Estates- General Storming the Bastille Storming the Bastille Rumors fly in Paris that Louis wants to suppress National Assembly Rumors fly in Paris that Louis wants to suppress National Assembly Mob attacks and seizes Bastille prison, killing guards; July 1789 Mob attacks and seizes Bastille prison, killing guards; July 1789 The attack on the prison is the beginning of the Revolution The attack on the prison is the beginning of the Revolution

13 STORMING THE BASTILLE

14 A GREAT FEAR Rumors and panic spread throughout France Rumors and panic spread throughout France Great Fear — attacks by peasants taking place across France Great Fear — attacks by peasants taking place across France Peasants destroy legal papers binding them to feudal system Peasants destroy legal papers binding them to feudal system In October 1789, Parisian women revolt over rising price of bread In October 1789, Parisian women revolt over rising price of bread They demand action, forcing Louis to return from Versailles to Paris They demand action, forcing Louis to return from Versailles to Paris

15 Origins of the French Revolution—Assessment Which of these choices best describes the Bourgeoisie? (A) Powerful clergy of the 1 st Estate (B) Wealthy nobles of the 2 nd Estate (C) Impoverished peasants of the 3 rd Estate (D) Wealthy middle class of the 3 rd Estate Which of these is Marie Antoinette known for? (A) Extravagant and wasteful wife of Louis XVI (B) Influential leader of the storming of the Bastille (C) Financially smart wife of Louis XVI who led France after his death (D) Visionary who led the Tennis Court Oath

16 Origins of the French Revolution—Assessment Which of these choices best describes the Bourgeoisie? (A) Powerful clergy of the 1 st Estate (B) Wealthy nobles of the 2 nd Estate (C) Impoverished peasants of the 3 rd Estate (D) Wealthy middle class of the 3 rd Estate Which of these is Marie Antoinette known for? (A) Extravagant and wasteful wife of Louis XVI (B) Influential leader of the storming of the Bastille (C) Financially smart wife of Louis XVI who led France after his death (D) Gambling visionary who led the Tennis Court Oath

17 Vocabulary Assessment Which of these choices best describes a guerilla? (A) Generals using animals on the battlefield (B) Revolutionary fighting forces that are used to overthrow a leader (C) Loosely organized fighting forces making surprise attacks (D) Special forces a king must use to end revolutions Which of these best describes an Emigre? (A) King Louis XVI using force to end the Revolution (B) Nobles fleeing France during peasant uprisings (C) The Third Estate creating the National Assembly (D) Peasants revolting against their manors for freedom

18 Vocabulary Assessment Which of these choices best describes a guerilla? (A) Generals using animals on the battlefield (B) Revolutionary fighting forces that are used to overthrow a leader (C) Loosely organized fighting forces making surprise attacks (D) Special forces a king must use to end revolutions Which of these best describes an Emigre? (A) King Louis XVI using force to end the Revolution (B) Nobles fleeing France during peasant uprisings (C) The Third Estate creating the National Assembly (D) Peasants revolting against their manors for freedom


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