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World History: The Earth and its Peoples Chapter 21 Revolutionary Changes in the Atlantic World, 1750-1850.

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Presentation on theme: "World History: The Earth and its Peoples Chapter 21 Revolutionary Changes in the Atlantic World, 1750-1850."— Presentation transcript:

1 World History: The Earth and its Peoples Chapter 21 Revolutionary Changes in the Atlantic World, 1750-1850

2 Objectives Understand the economic and ideological causes of the American, the French, and the Haitian Revolutions.. Be able to discuss and compare the course of the American, the French, and the Haitian revolutions and analyze the reasons for and the significance of the different outcomes of these three revolutions. Understand the successes and the shortcomings of the conservative reaction to the French Revolution as seen in the actions of the Congress of Vienna and the Holy Alliance. Be able to describe the causes and results of agitation for the extension of democratic rights and national self-determination in Europe and the United States of America in the nineteenth- century up to the 1870s..

3 Prelude to Revolution Revolutionary Reasons –cost of European wars Dutch vs Spain / Portugal England vs Spain / Dutch England vs France –new taxes to pay for war fiscal crisis –intellectual / political thought debate and confrontation attacks on customs / cultures Enlightenment –Scientific Revolution to society Copernicus, Galileo, Newton –categorization Denis Diderot Carolus Linnaeus

4 Prelude to Revolution Political Thought –John Locke “life, liberty, and property” –right to rebellion –individual rights as foundation –Jean-Jacques Rousseau will of people sacred monarch legitimacy –not always anti-monarch royal interest vs Republicanism Catherine the Great Frederick the Great –clergy / noble power –tax revenues –middle class expansion salon philosophy –freeing of human potential rejection of colonialism

5 American Revolution, 1775-1800 British Problems - post 1763 –colonist settlements –taxes for defense King George III - 1760-1820 –Amerindian relations Pontiac Rebellion –Virginia raids Proclamation of 1763 –slow western settlement Stamp Act of 1765 –printed material –Colonist reaction boycotts, organization, vandalism, intimidation –Boston –British Response military rule

6 American Revolution, 1775-1800 Revolutionary Road –Lexington and Concord –Continental Congress - 1775 George Washington –Common Sense –July 4, 1776 –Saratoga - 1777 Mohawk –Joseph Brant French –Yorktown - 1778 Gen. Charles Cornwallis –Treaty of Paris - 1783 unconditional surrender prewar debt

7 American Revolution, 1775-1800 Republican Institutions –state constitutions written formal ratification bill of individual rights –Articles of Confederation - 1781 1st constitution –one house, one vote –rule by committee Shay’s Rebellion - 1786 –weakness of Articles –Constitutional Convention - 1787 2nd American Revolution three branches white-male landowners 1808

8 The French Revolution, 1789-1815 French Society –3 Estates 1st - clergy 2nd - nobles 3rd - all others –80% peasants –problems poor harvests inflation unemployment –violence rural –increased taxes urban –increased prices non-revolutionary

9 The French Revolution, 1789-1815 War Expenses –Austrian / Spanish Succession –French and Indian War 50% budget / debt new taxes on nobility Louis XVI - 1774 –support for American Revolution –Assembly of Notables - 1787 deny King new taxes –Estates General 1614 1st and 2nd Estates alliance 3rd Estate ultimatum –National Assembly

10 The French Revolution, 1789-1815 Oath of the Tennis Court –pledge not to separate –Louis amasses troops Crisis –bread prices –1/3 unemployment Bastille –July 14, 1789 –rural peasant uprisings –tax reform Declaration of the Rights of Man –American ideals individual freedoms representative government

11 The French Revolution, 1789-1815 March to Versailles - Oct. 1789 –women and bread –royal return to Paris National Assembly –radical constitution limit monarchial power abolition of nobility seizing of church lands The Terror - 1793-94 –January 1793 Louis’ date with Monsieur Guillotine –Jacobins majority democrats Mountain Maximilien Robespierre

12 The French Revolution, 1789-1815 Return to Conservatism –military use on demonstrations –return of Catholic Church –Directory Napoleon Bonaparte - 1797 –popular authoritarianism result of Reign of Terror –women lose power military reputation = order –Napoleonic Code - 1804 equality in law protection of property –military success as key Portugal (1807) Spain (1808) Russia (1812)

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