Presentation on theme: "World History: The Earth and its Peoples"— Presentation transcript:
1 World History: The Earth and its Peoples Chapter 21Revolutionary Changes in the Atlantic World,
2 ObjectivesUnderstand the economic and ideological causes of the American, the French, and the Haitian Revolutions..Be able to discuss and compare the course of the American, the French, and the Haitian revolutions and analyze the reasons for and the significance of the different outcomes of these three revolutions.Understand the successes and the shortcomings of the conservative reaction to the French Revolution as seen in the actions of the Congress of Vienna and the Holy Alliance.Be able to describe the causes and results of agitation for the extension of democratic rights and national self-determination in Europe and the United States of America in the nineteenth-century up to the 1870s..
3 Prelude to Revolution Revolutionary Reasons Enlightenment cost of European warsDutch vs Spain / PortugalEngland vs Spain / DutchEngland vs Francenew taxes to pay for warfiscal crisisintellectual / political thoughtdebate and confrontationattacks on customs / culturesEnlightenmentScientific Revolution to societyCopernicus, Galileo, NewtoncategorizationDenis DiderotCarolus Linnaeus
4 Prelude to Revolution Political Thought John Locke “life, liberty, and property”right to rebellionindividual rights as foundationJean-Jacques Rousseauwill of people sacredmonarch legitimacynot always anti-monarchroyal interest vs RepublicanismCatherine the GreatFrederick the Greatclergy / noble powertax revenuesmiddle class expansionsalon philosophyfreeing of human potentialrejection of colonialism
5 American Revolution, 1775-1800 British Problems - post 1763 colonist settlementstaxes for defenseKing George IIIAmerindian relationsPontiac RebellionVirginia raidsProclamation of 1763slow western settlementStamp Act of 1765printed materialColonist reactionboycotts, organization, vandalism, intimidationBostonBritish Responsemilitary rule
6 American Revolution, 1775-1800 Revolutionary Road Lexington and ConcordContinental CongressGeorge WashingtonCommon SenseJuly 4, 1776SaratogaMohawkJoseph BrantFrenchYorktownGen. Charles CornwallisTreaty of Parisunconditional surrenderprewar debt
7 American Revolution, 1775-1800 Republican Institutions state constitutionswrittenformal ratificationbill of individual rightsArticles of Confederation1st constitutionone house, one voterule by committeeShay’s Rebellionweakness of ArticlesConstitutional Convention2nd American Revolutionthree brancheswhite-male landowners1808
8 The French Revolution, 1789-1815 French Society3 Estates1st - clergy2nd - nobles3rd - all others80% peasantsproblemspoor harvestsinflationunemploymentviolenceruralincreased taxesurbanincreased pricesnon-revolutionary
9 The French Revolution, 1789-1815 War ExpensesAustrian / Spanish SuccessionFrench and Indian War50% budget / debtnew taxes on nobilityLouis XVIsupport for American RevolutionAssembly of Notablesdeny King new taxesEstates General16141st and 2nd Estates alliance3rd Estate ultimatumNational Assembly
10 The French Revolution, 1789-1815 Oath of the Tennis Courtpledge not to separateLouis amasses troopsCrisisbread prices1/3 unemploymentBastilleJuly 14, 1789rural peasant uprisingstax reformDeclaration of the Rights of ManAmerican idealsindividual freedomsrepresentative government
11 The French Revolution, 1789-1815 March to Versailles - Oct. 1789women and breadroyal return to ParisNational Assemblyradical constitutionlimit monarchial powerabolition of nobilityseizing of church landsThe TerrorJanuary 1793Louis’ date with Monsieur GuillotineJacobinsmajority democratsMountainMaximilien Robespierre
12 The French Revolution, 1789-1815 Return to Conservatismmilitary use on demonstrationsreturn of Catholic ChurchDirectoryNapoleon Bonapartepopular authoritarianismresult of Reign of Terrorwomen lose powermilitary reputation = orderNapoleonic Codeequality in lawprotection of propertymilitary success as keyPortugal (1807) Spain (1808)Russia (1812)
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