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World History: The Earth and its Peoples

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1 World History: The Earth and its Peoples
Chapter 21 Revolutionary Changes in the Atlantic World,

2 Objectives Understand the economic and ideological causes of the American, the French, and the Haitian Revolutions.. Be able to discuss and compare the course of the American, the French, and the Haitian revolutions and analyze the reasons for and the significance of the different outcomes of these three revolutions. Understand the successes and the shortcomings of the conservative reaction to the French Revolution as seen in the actions of the Congress of Vienna and the Holy Alliance. Be able to describe the causes and results of agitation for the extension of democratic rights and national self-determination in Europe and the United States of America in the nineteenth-century up to the 1870s..

3 Prelude to Revolution Revolutionary Reasons Enlightenment
cost of European wars Dutch vs Spain / Portugal England vs Spain / Dutch England vs France new taxes to pay for war fiscal crisis intellectual / political thought debate and confrontation attacks on customs / cultures Enlightenment Scientific Revolution to society Copernicus, Galileo, Newton categorization Denis Diderot Carolus Linnaeus

4 Prelude to Revolution Political Thought John Locke
“life, liberty, and property” right to rebellion individual rights as foundation Jean-Jacques Rousseau will of people sacred monarch legitimacy not always anti-monarch royal interest vs Republicanism Catherine the Great Frederick the Great clergy / noble power tax revenues middle class expansion salon philosophy freeing of human potential rejection of colonialism

5 American Revolution, 1775-1800 British Problems - post 1763
colonist settlements taxes for defense King George III Amerindian relations Pontiac Rebellion Virginia raids Proclamation of 1763 slow western settlement Stamp Act of 1765 printed material Colonist reaction boycotts, organization, vandalism, intimidation Boston British Response military rule

6 American Revolution, 1775-1800 Revolutionary Road
Lexington and Concord Continental Congress George Washington Common Sense July 4, 1776 Saratoga Mohawk Joseph Brant French Yorktown Gen. Charles Cornwallis Treaty of Paris unconditional surrender prewar debt

7 American Revolution, 1775-1800 Republican Institutions
state constitutions written formal ratification bill of individual rights Articles of Confederation 1st constitution one house, one vote rule by committee Shay’s Rebellion weakness of Articles Constitutional Convention 2nd American Revolution three branches white-male landowners 1808

8 The French Revolution, 1789-1815
French Society 3 Estates 1st - clergy 2nd - nobles 3rd - all others 80% peasants problems poor harvests inflation unemployment violence rural increased taxes urban increased prices non-revolutionary

9 The French Revolution, 1789-1815
War Expenses Austrian / Spanish Succession French and Indian War 50% budget / debt new taxes on nobility Louis XVI support for American Revolution Assembly of Notables deny King new taxes Estates General 1614 1st and 2nd Estates alliance 3rd Estate ultimatum National Assembly

10 The French Revolution, 1789-1815
Oath of the Tennis Court pledge not to separate Louis amasses troops Crisis bread prices 1/3 unemployment Bastille July 14, 1789 rural peasant uprisings tax reform Declaration of the Rights of Man American ideals individual freedoms representative government

11 The French Revolution, 1789-1815
March to Versailles - Oct. 1789 women and bread royal return to Paris National Assembly radical constitution limit monarchial power abolition of nobility seizing of church lands The Terror January 1793 Louis’ date with Monsieur Guillotine Jacobins majority democrats Mountain Maximilien Robespierre

12 The French Revolution, 1789-1815
Return to Conservatism military use on demonstrations return of Catholic Church Directory Napoleon Bonaparte popular authoritarianism result of Reign of Terror women lose power military reputation = order Napoleonic Code equality in law protection of property military success as key Portugal (1807) Spain (1808) Russia (1812)

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