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A Timeline of French Events

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1 A Timeline of French Events 1789-1815
The French Revolution A Timeline of French Events

2 Pre-1789: Causes of the French Revolution
French society was divided into Three Estates: First Estate: Church Second Estate: Nobles Third Estate: Bourgeoisie, Peasants, Workers King Louis XVI (an absolute monarch) was spending LOTS of money. France had costly debts from the American Revolution, Marie Antoinette, and the military. The American Revolution inspired the Third Estate to begin fighting against the King.

3 The Beginning of the French Revolution: France is an Absolute Monarchy
May 1789: King Louis called the Estates General to get permission to raise taxes. The Third Estate got mad at their lack of representation (2/3 vote of estates to pass new law). June 1789: Third Estate separated from the Estates General and began to call themselves the National Assembly. The National Assembly took the Tennis Court Oath, swearing to write a new constitution -- some of the First and Second estate joined the National Assembly.

4 Storming of the Bastille
July 14, 1789 People in Paris were starving and began rioting. Parisians broke into the Bastille, a political prison in Paris. July 14 became Bastille Day, the French Independence Day.

5 Effects of the Fall of the Bastille
The Great Fear broke out in the countryside where peasants began to mob nobles and city dwellers started rioting. The mobbed nobles began fleeing France for Austria and Prussia; they were titled the “emigres.” Officially, France was divided into two opposing groups: The King and the Third Estate.

6 August 1789 The National Assembly began ruling.
Wrote the Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen (a declaration of independence) Continued trying to fight against King Louis XVI

7 Overthrow of the King October 1789
King Louis XVI and his family were forced to move from Versailles to Paris and live under watch The King was not fighting the National Assembly at this point. END OF THE SANE REVOLUTION By the end of 1789, the Radicals took over in Paris and began forming “clubs” ex. Jacobin Club

8 France Becomes a Constitutional Monarchy
September 1791 National Assembly wrote a new constitution, creating a constitutional monarchy in France. France ruled as a constitutional monarchy for almost a year, with King Louis XVI as the limited monarch, and several clubs part of the National Assembly. August 1792 Radicals stormed the Tuileries and took the King into custody.

9 France Becomes a Republic
September the “September Massacres” The National Assembly began executing nobles without a trial. The National Assembly was changed to the National Convention. The government changed to a “republic” -- a representative democracy. King Louis XVI was no longer needed for the government.

10 January 1793 King Louis XVI was put on trial and executed by the guillotine for treason. Peasants broke out in rebellion against the nobles. HOWEVER: Some peasants and nobility were still loyal to the King. --> Those loyal to the monarchy were termed “counterrevolutionaries” and they became the adversaries of the radicals in charge of the new Republic

11 1793-1795: The Real INSANITY Reigns

12 France Becomes a “Dictatorship”
: The Reign of Terror France becomes a dictatorship Leaders are the “Committee of Public Safety,” a nine-member group led by Maximilian Robespierre The CPS were the “revolutionaries,” or radicals that killed all opponents Opponents included nobles, the first estate, the second estate, some third estate who liked the first and second estate, and anyone else considered counterrevolutionaries

13 Robespierre Killed, Revolution Changes (again)
Opponents of Robespierre in the National Convention kill him and his followers. The revolution gets more sane, not as violent.

14 France Becomes a Republic (again)
: The Directory is established Five officers as the executive Two legislative bodies Military is used to maintain control of country ENTER NAPOLEON BONAPARTE The French people loved Napoleon and the Directory was unable to maintain order without him . . .

15 Directory Overthrown Napoleon used the power and influence of the military to win the support of the people. The Directory was overthrown by Napoleon in 1799. Napoleon organized a new government.

16 France Becomes an Absolute Monarchy
By 1801, Napoleon had gained absolute power and crowned himself “Emperor of the French.”

17 Napoleon’s Policies (that made him popular)
Helped the economy by setting prices, supporting new industry, and building roads and bridges Created a government-controlled school system Established the Napoleonic Code (a set of laws) that supported equality and religious toleration

18 Napoleon’s Empire From , Napoleon took over many countries with military force. Napoleon build up an empire for France, peaking in 1812.

19 Napoleon’s Fall Why did his empire begin to crumble?
People in the conquered states revolted against French rule. Napoleon invaded Russia in Russia used the “scorched earth policy” so the French had no supplies --> Most of the army was lost during the Russian winter. An 1813 alliance of Russia, Great Britain, Austria, and Prussia defeated Napoleon.

20 Napoleon’s Final Defeat
Napoleon was forced to step down in 1814, and Louis XVIII became the King of France. Napoleon tried to return from exile in 1815 to fight the Battle of Waterloo, but was defeated by the British and Prussians. Napoleon returned to exile on the island of St. Helena, in the South Atlantic, and died in 1821.

21 Effects of the French Revolution
Democratic ideals of “Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity” were spread throughout Europe. People wanted a change in government from absolute monarchies, and were inspired by the changes in France. Nationalism, or strong feelings of pride in one’s country, were built up by Napoleon’s conquests.

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