Presentation on theme: "A Timeline of French Events"— Presentation transcript:
1A Timeline of French Events 1789-1815 The French RevolutionA Timeline of French Events
2Pre-1789: Causes of the French Revolution French society was divided into Three Estates:First Estate: ChurchSecond Estate: NoblesThird Estate: Bourgeoisie, Peasants, WorkersKing Louis XVI (an absolute monarch) was spending LOTS of money.France had costly debts from the American Revolution, Marie Antoinette, and the military.The American Revolution inspired the Third Estate to begin fighting against the King.
3The Beginning of the French Revolution: France is an Absolute Monarchy May 1789: King Louis called the Estates General to get permission to raise taxes.The Third Estate got mad at their lack of representation (2/3 vote of estates to pass new law).June 1789: Third Estate separated from the Estates General and began to call themselves the National Assembly.The National Assembly took the Tennis Court Oath, swearing to write a new constitution -- some of the First and Second estate joined the National Assembly.
4Storming of the Bastille July 14, 1789People in Paris were starving and began rioting.Parisians broke into the Bastille, a political prison in Paris.July 14 became Bastille Day, the French Independence Day.
5Effects of the Fall of the Bastille The Great Fear broke out in the countryside where peasants began to mob nobles and city dwellers started rioting.The mobbed nobles began fleeing France for Austria and Prussia; they were titled the “emigres.”Officially, France was divided into two opposing groups: The King and the Third Estate.
6August 1789 The National Assembly began ruling. Wrote the Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen (a declaration of independence)Continued trying to fight against King Louis XVI
7Overthrow of the King October 1789 King Louis XVI and his family were forced to move from Versailles to Paris and live under watchThe King was not fighting the National Assembly at this point.END OF THE SANE REVOLUTIONBy the end of 1789, the Radicals took over in Paris and began forming “clubs”ex. Jacobin Club
8France Becomes a Constitutional Monarchy September 1791National Assembly wrote a new constitution, creating a constitutional monarchy in France.France ruled as a constitutional monarchy for almost a year, with King Louis XVI as the limited monarch, and several clubs part of the National Assembly.August 1792Radicals stormed the Tuileries and took the King into custody.
9France Becomes a Republic September the “September Massacres”The National Assembly began executing nobles without a trial.The National Assembly was changed to the National Convention.The government changed to a “republic” -- a representative democracy.King Louis XVI was no longer needed for the government.
10January 1793King Louis XVI was put on trial and executed by the guillotine for treason.Peasants broke out in rebellion against the nobles.HOWEVER: Some peasants and nobility were still loyal to the King.--> Those loyal to the monarchy were termed “counterrevolutionaries” and they became the adversaries of the radicals in charge of the new Republic
12France Becomes a “Dictatorship” : The Reign of TerrorFrance becomes a dictatorshipLeaders are the “Committee of Public Safety,” a nine-member group led by Maximilian RobespierreThe CPS were the “revolutionaries,” or radicals that killed all opponentsOpponents included nobles, the first estate, the second estate, some third estate who liked the first and second estate, and anyone else considered counterrevolutionaries
13Robespierre Killed, Revolution Changes (again) Opponents of Robespierre in the National Convention kill him and his followers.The revolution gets more sane, not as violent.
14France Becomes a Republic (again) : The Directory is establishedFive officers as the executiveTwo legislative bodiesMilitary is used to maintain control of countryENTER NAPOLEON BONAPARTEThe French people loved Napoleon and the Directory was unable to maintain order without him . . .
15Directory OverthrownNapoleon used the power and influence of the military to win the support of the people.The Directory was overthrown by Napoleon in 1799.Napoleon organized a new government.
16France Becomes an Absolute Monarchy By 1801, Napoleon had gained absolute power and crowned himself “Emperor of the French.”
17Napoleon’s Policies (that made him popular) Helped the economy by setting prices, supporting new industry, and building roads and bridgesCreated a government-controlled school systemEstablished the Napoleonic Code (a set of laws) that supported equality and religious toleration
18Napoleon’s EmpireFrom , Napoleon took over many countries with military force.Napoleon build up an empire for France, peaking in 1812.
19Napoleon’s Fall Why did his empire begin to crumble? People in the conquered states revolted against French rule.Napoleon invaded Russia in Russia used the “scorched earth policy” so the French had no supplies --> Most of the army was lost during the Russian winter.An 1813 alliance of Russia, Great Britain, Austria, and Prussia defeated Napoleon.
20Napoleon’s Final Defeat Napoleon was forced to step down in 1814, and Louis XVIII became the King of France.Napoleon tried to return from exile in 1815 to fight the Battle of Waterloo, but was defeated by the British and Prussians.Napoleon returned to exile on the island of St. Helena, in the South Atlantic, and died in 1821.
21Effects of the French Revolution Democratic ideals of “Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity” were spread throughout Europe.People wanted a change in government from absolute monarchies, and were inspired by the changes in France.Nationalism, or strong feelings of pride in one’s country, were built up by Napoleon’s conquests.