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Chapter 21: Revolutionary Changes in Atlantic World, 1750-1850.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 21: Revolutionary Changes in Atlantic World, 1750-1850."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 21: Revolutionary Changes in Atlantic World,


3 Essential Question: How did the costs of imperial wars & the Enlightenment challenge established political structures & forms of governance & religion in Europe & the American colonies?

4 Prelude to Revolution: Eighteenth-Century Crisis European rivalries increased Dutch attacked Spanish & Portuguese in Americas & Asia Britain: –checked Dutch commercial & colonial ambitions – defeated France-Seven Years War (1756–1763) French & Indian War in N. America –took over French colonial possessions in Americas & India Huge costs drove them to seek new revenue Enlightenment inspired people to question & protest new ways of collecting revenue

5 The Enlightenment & the Old Order Enlightenment thinkers applied methods & questions of Scientific Revolution to study of human society

6 Enlightenment & Old Order Enlightenment encouraged reform, not revolution Women were instrumental New ideas attracted expanding middle class Americas viewed as new, uncorrupted- progress would come more quickly Benjamin Franklin was symbol of natural genius & potential of America

7 Folk Cultures & Popular Protest Most people didn’t support Enlightenment ideas –tax reforms, etc. were violations of sacred customs violent protests meant to restore custom/precedent, not revolutionary change

8 American Revolution, 1775–1800 After French defeat in 1763, British faced two problems –Conflict between settlers & Amerindians –need to pay debts & defend colonies provoked protests in colonies policies undermined Amerindian economy led to attempts to restrict settlement Proclamation of 1763 Quebec Act of 1774

9 Road to Independence British government tried to raise new revenue –Stamp Act of 1765 Colonists organized boycotts, staged violent protests, and attacked British officials –Boston Massacre East India Company granted monopoly on import of tea to the colonies –Boston Tea Party

10 Course of Revolution, 1775–1783 Continental Congress formed Thomas Paine’s pamphlet Common Sense & Declaration of Independence Military sent to pacify colonies –won most battles –unable to control countryside –unable to achieve compromise political solution to problems of colonies

11 Course of Revolution, 1775–1783 Amerindians allies to both sides France entered war as ally of US in 1778 –Crucial to success –naval support enabled Washington to defeat Cornwallis at Yorktown, Virginia Treaty of Paris (1783), gave unconditional independence to former colonies

12 Construction of Republican Institutions, to 1800 colonies drafted written constitutions Articles of Confederation served as constitution for US during & after war democratic but only minority of adult male population could vote protected slavery

13 French Revolution, 1789–1815 Clergy/nobility controlled most wealth Clergy exempt from taxes Third Estate, rapidly growing, wealthy middle class (bourgeoisie) peasants (80% of population), suffered -poor harvests violent protests-not revolutionary expensive wars drove France into debt kings introduced new taxes & fiscal reforms to increase revenue met with resistance

14 Protest Turns to Revolution, 1789–1792 King called Estates General for approval of new taxes Third Estate & some members of First Estate declared National Assembly-pledged to write constitution to incorporate popular sovereignty As king prepared to arrest members of National Assembly, common people of Paris rose up against government-peasant uprisings broke out in countryside National Assembly issued Declaration of the Rights of Man As economic crisis grew worse, Parisian market women marched on Versailles-captured king & family National Assembly passed new constitution -limited power of monarchy, restructured French politics and society. Austria & Prussia threatened to intervene-National Assembly declared war in 1791

15 The Terror, 1793–1794 King’s attempt to flee, led to execution & formation of new government, the National Convention, which was dominated by radical Mountain faction of Jacobins, led by, Robespierre Under Robespierre, executive power placed in hands of Committee of Public Safety, militant feminist forces repressed, new actions against clergy approved, & suspected enemies imprisoned & guillotined In July 1794, conservatives in National Convention voted to arrest & execute Robespierre

16 Reaction & Rise of Napoleon, 1795–1815 Convention worked to undo radical reforms of Robespierre years, ratified a more conservative constitution & created new executive authority, the Directory Directory’s suspension of election results of 1797 signaled end of republican phase of revolution Napoleon seized power in 1799-began another form of government: popular authoritarianism Napoleon provided internal stability & protection of personal/property rights negotiated agreement w/ Catholic Church (Concordat of 1801) Created Civil Code of 1804 declared himself emperor (also in 1804) Napoleonic system denied basic political & property rights to women- restricted speech & expression stability depended on military & diplomacy No single European state could defeat Napoleon- –occupation of Iberian Peninsula turned into costly war w/ resistance forces –attack on Russia ended in disaster Alliance of Russia, Austria, Prussia, & England defeated Napoleon in 1814

17 Haitian Revolution, French Saint Domingue was one of richest European colonies in Americas one of most brutal slave regimes political turmoil in France led to conflict between slaves & gens de couleur & whites slave rebellion under François Dominique Toussaint L’Ouverture took over in 1794 Napoleon’s attempt to reestablish French authority led to capture of L’Ouverture- failed to retake colony became independent republic of Haiti in Slaves rebel, end slavery, create Western Hemispheres second independent nation; Haiti

18 Congress of Vienna & Conservative Retrenchment, 1815–1820 From 1814 to 1815, Britain, Russia, Prussia, Austria met in Vienna to reestablish & safeguard the conservative order in Europe The Congress of Vienna –restored the French monarchy –redrew borders of France & other European states –established Holy Alliance of Austria, Russia, Prussia Holy Alliance defeated liberal revolutions in Spain & Italy in 1820 Tried, without success, to repress liberal & nationalist ideas

19 Nationalism, Reform, Revolution, 1821–1850 Popular support for national self-determination & democratic reform grew Greece gained independence from Ottoman Empire French monarchy forced to accept constitutional rule & extend voting privileges Democratic reform in both Britain & in US In Europe, desire for national self-determination & democratic reform led to series of revolutions in 1848

20 Conclusion: The American Revolution expense of colonial wars led to imposition of new taxes on colonials Resentment over taxation led British American colonies to fight & win independence New American government reflected for contemporaries the democratic ideals of the Enlightenment

21 Conclusion: The French Revolution Revolutionaries in France created more radical representative democracy than found in America Events in France led to Haitian Revolution & Haiti’s independence Entrenched elite forces within & foreign intervention from without, made French & Haitian Revolutions more violent & destructive than American Revolution In France, chaos led to rise of Napoleon

22 Aftermath of Revolution Conservative retrenchment after Napoleon prevailed in the short term in Europe-nationalism & liberalism could not be held in check for long New social classes that arose w/ industrial capitalism demanded a new social & political order New political freedoms were limited to a minority –Women could not participate until twentieth century – slavery endured until second half of 19 th century in America

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