2 Before the Revolution Why Change? Government was a Monarchy called the Old Regime.During the Old Regime there were 3 Estates (social classes)Why Change?The Enlightenment gave ideas of Revolution (sudden or significant change in the old ways of doing things)Rich got richer – poor got poorer
3 The Three Estates First Estate Second Estate Third Estate Clergy- owned 10% of land in FranceSecond EstateNobility- 2% of populationThird EstateBourgeoisie (middle class)Urban Poor (laborers)Peasants- 80% of total population97% of the population
4 King Louis XVI King Louis XVI – terrible leader; put France in debt More concerned about sports (hunting) than his people and the economy
5 Queen Marie Antoinette Queen Marie Antoinette – Upset many people with her dress style, loss up to $1.5 million playing cards
6 The revolution The 3rd estate wanted a Revolution They needed weapons. They stormed the Bastille (prison w/ weapons) on July 14th 1789.This was the start of the Revolution
7 The Revolution The leaders of the Revolution execute Louis & Marie Guillotine- method of execution usedRobespierre takes control of France. He creates the “Reign of Terror” which saw over 40,000 people killed-- most were of the Third Estate.
8 Napoleon Bonaparte Revolution has no leadership– got out of hand Napoleon= successful general who is loved by all!Military geniusControls France by 1795
9 Napoleon BonaparteNapoleon kept many reforms of the revolution; this kept the 97% poor happyNapoleonic Code- Napoleons laws created to restore peace and stability1804 times were good- he crowns himself EmperorBy 1810 he controlled Europe
11 Napoleon’s downfallNapoleon wanted all of Europe: tried to cut off Britain's trade1812 Napoleon invades Russia w/ 420,000 menThe Russians retreated inland – they burned their own land so the French could not use the Russians resources.
13 Napoleon’s downfall The French moved to Moscow but it was burned The French tried to go home but the Russian winter wiped out the French troops
14 Napoleon’s downfallNapoleon was then defeated by the Brits. At Waterloo (city in Belgium).Napoleon was exiled (banished) to St. Helena & died
15 Congress of ViennaThe Leaders of the European countries went to Vienna for a meeting.There they re-drew country boundaries & restored peace throughout Europe.Many countries became allies (not so good)