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Revolutionary Changes in the Atlantic World, Chapter 21

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Presentation on theme: "Revolutionary Changes in the Atlantic World, Chapter 21"— Presentation transcript:

1 Revolutionary Changes in the Atlantic World, 1750-1850 Chapter 21

2 Prelude to Revolution: The Eighteenth Century Crisis

3 Colonial Wars and Fiscal Crises
European wars 1600s, 1700s Dutch v Spanish/Portuguese In America and Asia British v. Dutch in 1600s and 1700s Seven Years War ( ) Money issues Where will it come from? 7 yrs war- british v. france over canada and land west of mississippi; and in India; where- colonies because of the enlightenment in europe ?d war

4 The Enlightenment and the Old Order
Apply Scientific Revolution to _____. John Locke Reasonable people Natural rights Limited government If government fails then……. Jean Jacques Rousseau Minimum control Subordinate to community Hatred for all forms of political and economic oppression Human society;

5 Patronized Enlightenment
Atheists and radicals Voltaire Monarchy Patronized Enlightenment Catherine the Great of Russia Frederick the Great of Prussia Women were instrumental Enlightenment was popular to the ____ America Benjamin Franklin These leaders reformed gov, legal systems, tax, and economy; but they suppressed or banned radical ideas that promoted republicanism or attacked religion;---opening salons for discussion; middle class; uncorrupted with potential of social progress; ben frankling prooved that merit could thrive as opposed to inherited privilege as in Europe;

6 Folk Cultures and Popular Protest
Most Europeans did not.. Protests in Europe Taxes Revolution and Riches Share ideas of the enlightenment; not revolutionary change but to restore custom

7 The American Revolution, 1775-1800

8 Frontiers and Taxes After 1763 England had two problems: New Taxes
Amerindian raids in PA and VA Proclamation of 1763- Quebec Act of 1774 New Taxes Stamp Act Townshend Act Boycotts Protests “Sons of Liberty” Danger of war with Amerindians (west) and raising taxes; took a year to stop raids; prohibited settlement west of the appalachian mountians; quebec probhitetd settlement in Ohio region;

9 East Indian Company’s monopoly on ___ Boston Tea Party
“Boston Massacre” 1770 East Indian Company’s monopoly on ___ Tea Tax Boston Tea Party Intolerable Acts 1. 2. Boston harbor shut down, martiaal law; 10,000 pounds

10 The Course of Revolution 1775-1783
Continental Congress Currency and army G. Washington Rhetoric of independence Common Sense Declaration of Independence Patriots and Loyalists Slaves Amerindians

11 Allies France in 1778 War ends in 1778 with victory in Yorktown, VA with Washington’s defeat of General Cornwallis Treaty of Paris 1783 navy

12 The Construction of Republican Institutions, to 1800
Articles of Confederation Constitutional Convention 1787 Minority vote

13 The French Revolution

14 The French Society and Fiscal Crisis
French society was divided into 3 groups: First, Second, and Third Estate Bourgeoisie Peasants, merchants, artisans Taxes led to ____ Clergy, hereditary nobility, etc. first two controlled the wealth; suffering from economic depression; revolution

15 Protests Turns to Revolution, 1789-1792
Meeting of Estates General New taxes National Assembly Popular sovereignty King called for the arrest of the National Assembly; As it set forth its position in the Declaration of the Rights of Man Called for by members of the first and third estate; marqis de lafayette

16 Parisian market women marched on Versailles and captured the king and his family.
The National Assembly passed a new _____ that limited the power of the monarchy and restructured French politics and society. When Austria and Prussia threatened to intervene, the National Assembly declared war in 1791. constitution

17 The Terror, 1793-1794 National Convention Maximillien Robespierre
Jacobins “Mountain” faction Maximillien Robespierre Actions against clergy approved Reign of Terror Ended in 1794 with his arrest and execution Louis 16th was executed by the new radical government; 40,000 beheaded

18 Reaction and Dictatorship
The Directory What signaled the end of the republican phase of the revolution? Popular authoritarianism was confirmed with the reign of _________ in 1799. More conservative executive authority; suspension of election results of 1797; napolean

19 Alliances defeat Napoleon in 1814
Napoleon's reform Concordat of 1801 Civil Code of 1804 Emperor Restriction Women Speech Alliances defeat Napoleon in 1814 Concord- protection of personal property rights, reduction of church authority; no privileges based on birth, allowed freedom of religion, and gov. merit; he was defeated by Russia, Spain, Portuguese, and England- costly war

20 Revolution Spreads, Conservatives Respond, 1789-1850

21 The Haitian Revolution
Saint Dominque Rich and brutal Instability in France led to.. Slave Rebellion in 1794 Francois Dominique Toussaint L’Ouverture Independence 1804 Economy Instability in colonies;

22 The Congress of Vienna and Conservative Retrenchment, 1815-1820
Britain, Russia, Prussia, and Austria met in Vienna. Goal: Result: “Holy Alliance” Repress liberal and nationalist ideas Spain and Italy Goal- restore peace and conservative order in Europe; restored French monarchy, redrew French borders, Holy Alliance- Austria, Russia, and Prussia goal to repress liberal and nationalist ideas; defeated revolutions there in 1820

23 Nationalism, Reform, and Revolution 1821-1850
Popular support for national _________ and ________ reform grew throughout Europe. Greece France Democratic reform movements U.S- War of 1812 Britain- Corn Laws Self determination/democratic; greece indepence from ottoman in 1830, France forced monarchy to accept constitutional rule and to extend voting privilages; corn laws led to 50% increase in voting; corn law increased taxes on foreign corn

24 Revolutions in 1848 France Other revolutions in Europe failed
Monarchy overthrown and replaced Other revolutions in Europe failed Monarchy

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