2 2010 Scores513,00712.7%418,85418.4%335,43234.5%211,54311.2%123,79323.2%Total102,629Ave. 2.863 or Higher67,29365.6%
3 Exam last 3 Hours and 5 Minutes 55 Minutes for 80 Multiple Choice Questions130 minutes for 3 essays60 minute Document Based QuestionMandatory 15 minutes for Reading & Evaluating Documents45 minutes for writing35 Minutes for Free Response Essay Question5 minutes for planning30minutes for writingSame
4 1/3 of the questions focus on cultural & intellectual themes Multiple-choice = 80 questions, measuring the student’s knowledge from High Renaissance-present.½ of the questions are from the period 1450 to the French Revolutionary & Napoleonic era.½ are from the French Revolutionary & Napoleonic era to the present.Questions covering the 19th century & the 20th century are divided evenly (approximately 25 percent of the total number of questions for each century)1/3 of the questions focus on cultural & intellectual themes1/3 focus on political & diplomatic themes1/3 focus on social & economic themes.
5 Identification (45% of the test) - facts Questions fall into 6 basic categories:Identification (45% of the test) - factsNOT/EXCEPT (10% of the test)-choose the answer that is incorrectAnalytical (20-25% of the test) - relationships, see connections, place in orderQuotation Based (10% or less of the test) - match the quote with the appropriate personImage Interpretation (10% or less of the test) - determine images relevance, purpose, or meaningMap/Graph/Chart Based (10% or less of the test) - identify what a map/data shows, or interpret it's purpose
6 80 Multiple Choice Questions = 1/2 Score Grading80 Multiple Choice Questions = 1/2 Score¼ point penalty for guessing has been eliminatedWithin the free-response section, the DBQ essay is weighted 45 percent & the two FRQ essays together are weighted 55 percentFor the total exam score, the multiple-choice & the free-response sections are weighted equally
7 Testing Verbs1.Analyze: determine the component parts; examine their nature and relationship.“Analyze the major social and technological changes that took place in European warfare between 1789 and 1871.’’2.Assess/Evaluate: judge the value or character of something; appraise; evaluate the positive points and the negative ones; give an opinion regarding the value of; discuss the advantages and disadvantages of. “‘Luther was both a revolutionary and a conservative.’ Evaluate this statement with respect to Luther’s responses to the political and social questions of his day.’’3.Compare: examine for the purpose of noting similarities and differences.“Compare the rise to power of fascism in Italy and in Germany.’’
8 5.Describe: give an account of; tell about; give a word picture of. 4.Contrast: examine in order to show dissimilarities or points of difference.“Contrast the ways in which European skilled artisans of the mid-eighteenth century and European factory workers of the late nineteenth century differed in their work behavior and in their attitudes toward work.”5.Describe: give an account of; tell about; give a word picture of.“Describe and analyze how overseas expansion by European states affected global trade and international relations from 1600 to 1715.”6.Discuss: talk over; write about; consider or examine by argument or from various points of view; debate; present the different sides of.“Discuss the extent to which nineteenth-century Romanticism was or was not a conservative cultural and intellectual movement.”
9 AP European M.C. Exam follows 3 major themes: Intellectual & Cultural – 1/3 of questionsPolitical & Diplomatic – 1/3 of questionsSocial & Economic – 1/3 of questionsClusters of questions:Key Terms, Key Treaties & Agreements, Key, Intellectual FiguresRussian History, Renaissance, Reformation, French Revolution, women’s history, & Cold WarFor example: Karl Marx, the Edict of Nantes, & mercantilism have appear on almost every testKeep a general timeline – not specific dates
11 Late Middle Ages The Black Death The Hundred Years’ War Rise of nationalism in France & EnglandEcclesiastical powerUnam Sanctum 1302 – Pope Boniface VIIIAvignon Papacy – Great SchismJohn Wycliffe & Jan HusKievan Rus
12 FRQDiscuss the pre-existing conditions that contributed to the Black Death during the late Middle Ages.Compare the experiences of peasants and artisans in the aftermath of the Bubonic Plague.
13 Treaty of Lodi: Defined Northern Italy’ borders Florence RenaissanceTreaty of Lodi: Defined Northern Italy’ bordersFlorenceCosimo de Medici, Lorenzo de MediciGirolamo SavonarolaHumanismPetrarch, Dante, BoccaccioMachiavelli’s The Prince is often askedQuotations sometimes usedMachiavelli’s cynical view of human nature & ruthless pragmatic advice
14 Renaissance & Discovery ArtChiaroscuro, linear perspective, triangles/ pyramid configuration, Classical forms combined with Christian subjectsArtistsFocus on key masterpieces that illustrate Renaissance ideals & the impact of humanismLeonardo da Vinci – Mona LisaRaphael – School of AthensMichelangelo - David
15 Low Countries, France, England, & Germany Christian humanists Northern RenaissanceLow Countries, France, England, & GermanyChristian humanistsFar more concerned with religious piety than Italian counterLiteratureGutenberg, Erasmus, Thomas MoreImpact of the printing press on European life & thoughtFreedom of expression, spread of information, challenged authorities
16 First to use & perfect oil painting More detail Artists Northern RenaissanceArtFirst to use & perfect oil paintingMore detailArtistsAlbrecht Dürer, Jan Van Eyck
17 FRQCompare the northern Renaissance with the Italian Renaissance in terms of scholarly, literary, and artistic production.Discuss the importance of the printing press on the Northern Renaissance.To what extent did the women of Europe experience the Renaissance ?
18 Columbian Exchange: many questions Age of ExplorationExplorersHenry the Navigator, Diaz, da Gama, Columbus, Vespucci, MagellanColumbian Exchange: many questionsAgricultural products, animals, diseases, & human populations involved in the exchangeEffects of the exchange on European population & economy.Economics: Putting-out system, Joint-stock Companies, & mercantilism
19 Protestant Reformation The Great SchismResolved by Council of Constance 1414Sale of indulgences, nepotism, simony, clerical immorality, absenteeismGerman Peasants WarPeace of Augsburg 1555 – “cuius regio, eius religio”Protestant Leaders:Martin LutherUlrich ZwingliJohn CalvinThomas Müntzer - Anabaptists
20 Protestant Reformation Focus on Luther’s 95 Theses & his dramatic stand against indulgencesAlso, keep in mind Luther’s response to the German Peasants WarSometimes used as an essay topicSocial & political consequences of the Protestant Reformation
21 English Reformation Counter-Reformation Sir Thomas More Henry VIII Thomas CranmerThomas CromwellEdward VICounter-ReformationCharles V – HRECouncil of TrentJesuits – Ignatius Loyola
22 FRQConsider what family life was like in early modern Europe during the Reformation. Focus on marriage, family size, birth control, education, and childcare.Defend or refute this statement: The Protestant Reformation was a unified movement of dissent against the Roman Catholic Church.Compare & contrast the policies of the Catholic Church before and after the Council of Trent.
23 Philip II: rules Spain, & Spanish Netherlands English Queen Elizabeth I: assists the Dutch with $ & troopsSpanish Armada set to invade EnglandSir Francis Drake defeats the ArmadaSpanish influence declines, England rises
24 French Religious Wars Huguenots St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre 1572 The Politiques: moderates of both religious faiths - Huguenots & CatholicsHenry NavarreEdict of Nantes – Know the termsThe Thirty Years’ WarProtestant League, Catholic LeaguePeace of Westphalia 1648Consequences: Decline of HRE & the delay of German unification, independent Netherlands
25 FRQDescribe the experience of the Huguenots in 17th century France.Analyze some of the existing conditions that led to the Thirty Years’ War.Analyze the achievements & disappointments of the Thirty Years’ War.
26 17th Century Economy: Dutch Republic English Civil War Amsterdam – Europe’s leading commercial center during the 17th CenturyEnglish Civil WarFocus on causes & consequences of the changing relationships between the monarchy & ParliamentGlorious RevolutionConstitutional Monarchy – English Bill of Rights
27 Age of Absolutism Henry Navarre Nobles of the Robe, Nobles of the SwordLouis XIIICardinal RichelieuThe Intendant system – weaken the nobilityLouis XIVCardinal MazarinThe Fronde uprisingIntendant system & the Fronde generate many questions
28 Age of Absolutism Louis XIV – the “Sun King” "L'État, c'est moi" ("I am the State")War of Spanish SuccessionTreaty of Utrecht 1713Hapsburg AustriaRise of PrussiaPragmatic Sanction – Maria TheresaRise of Russia – Romanov dynastyPeter the Great – modernization programs generate numerous questions
30 Scientific Revolution Old assumptions – geocentricAristotle & PtolemyCatholic ChurchNew – Heliocentric - CopernicusTycho Brahe & Kepler – planetary motionGalileoScientific Method - Sir Francis Bacon & DescartesPhysical Laws – NewtonAP Euro exam expects you to discuss how pivotal figures of the Scientific Revolution adopted a new view of nature that challenged long held views of the relationship between humanity & the universe.
31 The Enlightenment The Philosophes Dedicated to exposing social problems & proposing reforms based upon implementing natural laws.Main ideas: Reason, Natural laws, Happiness, Progress, Liberty, Toleration.DeismVoltaire, Diderot, Montesquieu, RousseauVoltaire & Rousseau generate the most questions.Understand:Voltaire supported religious toleration & opposed superstition & ignorance.Rousseau: concept of the general will & views of education (Emile)
32 The Enlightenment Economic French Physiocrats: first to question mercantilismSuggested laissez-faire policies of governmentAdam Smith – Wealth of NationsLaissez-faireFree marketsSelf interest = the “invisible guiding hand”Students may be asked to compare the economic policies of Jean-Baptiste Colbert & Adam SmithColbert supports mercantilism to strengthen France.
33 FRQEvaluate the political, social , & cultural reforms Enlightenment thinkers sought in 18th century European society.Discuss the attitudes of Enlightenment thinkers towards organized religion.
34 Great Britain prospers Colonization & trade, Robert Walpole: 1st PM RivalriesGreat Britain prospersColonization & trade, Robert Walpole: 1st PMFrance - Louis XV, prosperity continues, but debt continues to mount7 Years’ War – Treaty of Paris 1763Prussia – HohenzollernsAustria – HapsburgsWar of Austrian SuccessionTreaty of Aix-la-Chapelle
35 Enlightened DespotsDivine-right monarchy evolved into enlightened despotismUrged by the philosophes to use absolute rule for the good of the peopleCombat ignorance & superstitionPromote religious tolerationGeorge III – EnglandLouis XV – FranceBoth had little or no interest in either the philosophes or concept of enlightened despotism
36 Enlightened Despots Catherine the Great – 1762-1796 Reforms: Supported Russia’s first private printing pressesRestricted use of torturePermitted toleration to Jewish communitiesCommissioned new “enlightened” law codeNobles refusedPugachev’s Rebellion –Territorial expansion into Ottoman & Polish lands
37 Enlightened Despots Frederick the Great – 1740-1786 Reforms: Supported scientific agriculturePrepared a unified national code of lawAbolished tortureEncouraged immigration by Huguenots & Jews into PrussiaStrengthened JunkersStudents are often asked to make comparisons between Peter the Great & Frederick the Great – goals & policies
38 Enlightened Despots Joseph II– 1780-1790 Reforms: Abolished serfdom & feudal duesAbolished forced laborReligious toleration for Christians & JewsReduced influence of the churchReformed judicial systemAbolished torture & ended the death penaltyNobles bitterly opposed reformsMost policies repealed following death of Joseph
39 FRQEnlightened despots have generated MC & FRQs.Discuss the extent to which Catherine the Great, Frederick the Great, & Joseph II succeeded & failed as Enlightened despots.
40 Agricultural Revolution Innovations in the Low Countries:Enclosed fieldsUse of manure as fertilizerPlanting variety of cropsDrainage to reclaim marshes for farmlandEnglandCharles Townshend: crop rotationJethro Tull: seed drillRobert Blakewell: selective livestock breedingEnclosure system: England & the Low CountriesSuccessfully resisted in France & Germany
41 Marriage & family life in the 18th century Rise & fall of Witchcraft Population growthList factorsMarriage & family life in the 18th centuryRise & fall of WitchcraftAP Euro exam: important to remember that witchcraft trial & executions most often affected elderly widows & mid-wives. Know the reasons for the growth & decline of witchcraft.
42 Industrial Revolution EnglandTextilesSpinning Jenny, the Water Frame, the Steam Engine, increased iron production.The Growth of CitiesJewish populations: the age of the Ghetto in Eastern Europe.
43 FRQConsider how popular consumption was affected by the Industrial Revolution & the shift of populations to urban centers.Describe some of the ways in which the Industrial Revolution transformed the workplace for women.
44 Trans-Atlantic Economy & Revolution The Treaty of Utrecht 1713ColoniesAmericas, West Indies, Indian subcontinentSpanish colonial systemAfrican Slavery, the Plantation SystemWar of Jenkins EarSeven Years’ WarTreaty of Paris 1763American RevolutionTreaty of Paris 1783
45 FRQDiscuss how slavery was linked to the economies of Europe, the Americas, & Africa.To what extent was the War of the American Revolution a European conflict?
46 French Revolutions –Ancien Regime3 EstatesPeasant distressGovernment debtAristocratic resistanceRoyal weaknessEstates GeneralTennis Court OathThe National AssemblyDeclaration of the Rights of Man & CitizenRights of women
47 French Revolutions –Women’s March on VersaillesCivil Constitution of the ClergyThe Legislative AssemblySan-culottes, Jacobins & Girondists: goalsDeclaration of PilnitzSeptember MassacresThe National ConventionExecution of Louis XVI & Marie AntoinetteEuropean reactionReign of TerrorTermidorian Reaction
48 The Directory & the rise of Napoleon First Consul The Napoleonic Code French Revolutions –The Directory & the rise of NapoleonFirst ConsulThe Napoleonic CodeThe Concordant of 1801Napoleonic Empire 1804Submission of Europe – Battle of AusterlitzBattle of TrafalgarConfederation of the RhineThe Continental System & the Fall of NapoleonFocus on the impact Napoleon’s conquests had on spreading nationalism & in dissolving the HRE.
49 FRQTo what extent was the Third Estate responsible for altering the course of the French government?Analyze the political, economic, & social factors that helped bring about the French Revolution as well as those that led to its downfall.
50 Restoration Forces of the Past: Forces of the Future: Traditional Monarchy, Aristocracy, Church, Patriarchal familyConservatism-belief that tradition is essential & any change should be gradualForces of the Future:IndustrializationLiberalism-belief in gov’t protection of citizen’s natural rightsNationalism-belief that a nation consists of people sharing traditions, history, & language
51 Restoration Congress of Vienna Concert of Europe Quadruple Alliance Prince Klemens von MetternichPrinciple of LegitimacyBalance of PowerTerritorial settlementsEvaluationConcert of EuropeQuadruple AllianceReaction:Young Germans protest – Metternich issues Carlsbad DecreesRussia – Decembrist Revolt 1825
52 Romanticism Reaction to Enlightenment Reason Key: Primacy of Emotion Inspired by the power & majesty of natureComparison: Enlightenment vs. RomanticismE: mechanical view of the universe & human natureRejected faith, sought reason to explain relationshipsR: belief in a loving, personal God, stressed emotions, inner faith, & religious inspirationWriters: William Wordsworth, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Johan Wolfgang von Goethe, Victor Hugo, Brothers GrimmArtists: Friedrich – Wanderer above the Mist, Francisco Goya – The Third of May 1808Composers: Beethoven, Wagner
53 Romanticism Writers: Artists: Composers: William Wordsworth – Prelude Samuel Taylor Coleridge – Rhime of the Ancient MarinerJohan Wolfgang von Goethe - FaustVictor Hugo – The Hunchback of Notre DameBrothers Grimm - Grimm’s Fairy TalesArtists:Friedrich – Wanderer above the MistFrancisco Goya – The Third of May 1808Composers:Beethoven – Ninth SymphonyRichard Wagner – The Ring of Nibelung
54 FRQAnalyze the differences between nationalism, conservatism, & liberalism as these ideologies were expressed in the early 19th century.Using examples from the works of at least two English Romantics, describe the philosophy of the Romantic movement in literature.Many AP Euro questions are generated for Romanticism, & its comparison to Enlightenment ideals
55 Industrial Revolutions 1st : textiles, iron, coal & steam, railroadsCreation of the factory systemDivision of laborIncreased demand, lower wagesSocial changes: urbanization, pace of life, standardization of work, & heightened class consciousness2nd : steel, electricity, oil, gasoline, chemicalsCommunication
56 Industrial Revolutions Reactions:Thomas Malthus – populationDavid Ricardo – wagesLudditesEarly labor unionsRobert Owen – utopian socialismMarx & Engels – Communist ManifestoMarxism is one of the most frequently tested topics. Quotes & concepts are often posed.Ex. Class conflict, dictatorship of the proletariat, & classless society
57 Liberal Reform England France The Reform Bill of 1832 Repeal of the Corn LawsThe Chartist MovementFeministsSuffragette MovementEmmeline PankhurstFranceRevolution of 1830Charles X overthrownLouis Phillipe elected: “Citizen King”
58 Science & Art Louis Pasteur Robert Koch Joseph Lister Charles Darwin Theory of EvolutionSocial DarwinismArtImpressionismCubism
59 Revolutions of 1848 Causes: Key points: Conservatives responding to industrialization & socializationWorking class radicals & middle class liberalsNationalists in France, Germany, Austria, & ItalyWidespread crop failuresKey points:France: Louis Philippe's gov’t collapsed, Louis Napoleon elected, Second Republic establishedRevolutions of 1848 failed: internal divisions, a lack of popular support outside the cities, and the continued strength of conservative orderPeaceful reforms enabled England to avoid revoltsRepressive policies stifled reform in Russia
60 FRQConsider various forms of 19th century prison reform.Discuss the continuities & changes in societal roles for women during the Second Industrial Revolution.
61 Crimean War Causes: Consequences: Weakness of the Ottoman Empire Fighting for control over territories held by the OttomansAustria threatened by Russian expansionB & F opposed changes in regional balance of powerConsequences:Russia suffers humiliating defeatTsar Alexander II launches ambitious reformsEmancipation of the serfsCreation of zemstvos
62 Unification Italy: Germany: Revolutionaries: Mazzini, Cavour, GaribaldiVictor Emmanuel rules conquered areasProblems: economic differences between rich north & poor southHeavy DebtGermany:Prussian leadership: William I, Otto von Bismarck – realpolitik, Blood & ironWar with DenmarkWar with AustriaWar with FranceDeclaration of the German EmpireReaction: Austria-Hungary unite – Dual Monarchy
63 France: England: Russia: Nicholas II Germany: The Paris Commune 1871 The Dreyfus AffairEmile Zola – J’Accuse!England:William Gladstone & Benjamin DisraeliThe Irish questionRussia: Nicholas IIBloody SundayRevolution of 1905October ManifestoBolsheviks & MensheviksGermany:William II
64 FRQExplain how anti-Semitism developed, despite advancements made by Western European Jews following the French Revolution.Describe the steps taken by feminists in the late 19th century & early 20th century. What issues did they tackle & what was the outcome? Were they successful in their causes?
66 Imperialism Old: New: Only Liberia & Ethiopia remained independent 16th & 17th centuriesDutch, Spanish, English, & French colonialismCoastal Africa, Indian, Indonesia, & the AmericasNew:Beginning in the 1870sDirect economic & political control over Africa & AsiaScramble for Africa, Berlin ConferenceBritish Raj in IndiaOnly Liberia & Ethiopia remained independent
67 Imperialism Motives: Consequences: New sources of raw materials & new marketsPower & prestigeSocial DarwinismChristian missionaries – “civilizing mission”Consequences:Damaged or destroyed native culturesCreated global economyIntensified European rivalries
68 FRQAnalyze the causes & effects of the European Imperialism of the 19th century.
69 WWI March towards war: Reaction: Germany & the new Balance of Power Britain & France out produced by German industrySharp increase in German populationBismarck’s network of Alliances:Austria-Hungary & Italy (Triple Alliance) & 1887 treaty with RussiaWilliam II – “One master of the Reich”Reaction:1894 Franco-Russian AllianceBritain abandons “splendid isolation” policyFormation of the Triple Entente
70 WWI Balkan Powder Keg: Spark: Ottoman’s power decreases Nationalism risingPan-Slavism (with Russian support)1908 Austria-Hungary annexes Bosnia & HerzegovinaSpark:June 28, 1914 Gavrilo Princip assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand in SarajevoGermany’s “Blank Check” to Austria-Hungary
71 WWI Aspects of war Russian Revolution The Schlieffen Plan Stalemate (Trench Warfare)War TechnologiesTotal WarThe role of WomenAll Quiet On The Western FrontRussian RevolutionEnd of Romanov RuleThe Provisional GovernmentLenin & the Bolshevik RevolutionThe Treaty of Brest-LitovskCivil War
72 WWI The Peace Settlement The Paris Peace Conference American interventionWilliam II abdicatesArmisticeWilson’s 14 PointsThe Paris Peace ConferenceThe Treaty of VersaillesGerman War GuiltGermany loses 13% of its landGerman territories in Africa & the Pacific mandated to Britain, France, & JapanPoland gains independenceGerman army limited to 100K, no war industry allowedDemilitarization of the Rhine
73 WWI New Map of Europe The Paris Peace Conference Austria-Hungary dissolved, Hapsburg monarchy eliminatedCreation of Czechoslovakia & YugoslaviaFinland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania emergedElimination of Monarchies in Austria-Hungary, Germany, & RussiaThe Paris Peace ConferenceCreated the League of NationsCreated a legacy of bitterness between both the victors & the defeated
74 FRQThe AP Euro test devotes few questions to the extreme details of the events that led to the outbreak of WWI.Spend the majority of time studying the consequences of the war for the countries involved.Lenin’s pivotal role in the Russian Revolution has generated a significant number of MC questions. Be sure to study Lenin’s key ideas.Often, comparisons will be made between Lenin’s power & leadership with the weakness of Tsar Nicholas II & Alexander Kerensky.
76 Impact of WWI Caused unprecedented death & destruction Overthrew established monarchies & social ordersLed many people to question the optimistic belief in reason, progress, & individual rightsUncertainties:Widespread feeling of disillusionment, uncertainty, & anxietyNew doubts about the ability of individuals to control their livesAn intellectual crisis that affected every field of thought
77 Modern Philosophy Friedrich Nietzsche – 1844-1900 Existentialism: Expressed contempt for middle-class moralitySaying that it led to a false & shallow existenceArgued that conventional notions of good & evil are only relevant for the ordinary personRejected reason & embraced the irrationalBelieved that the “will to power” of a few heroic “super men” could successfully restructure the worldExistentialism:Reason & science are incapable of providing insight into the human conditionGod, reason, & progress are myths; humans live in a hostile world, alone & isolatedA person is the sum of their actions & choices
78 Modern Philosophy Albert Einstein – 1879-1955 Theory of Relativity: E = mc2Energy = mass x the square of the speed of lightEnergy & mass are interchangeableThe foundation for the development of nuclear powerImplications:The universe has few certaintiesEverything is “relevant” or dependent on the observers frame of referenceUpsets the optimistic view that the universe was predictable & orderly
79 Modern Philosophy Sigmund Freud – 1856-1939 Believed the human psyche includes three distinct parts: id, superego, & the egoId: inborn sexual & aggressive urgesSuperego: acts as a conscience seeking to repress the id. Drives desires into the subconscious, which is irrational & recognizes no ethical restrictionsEgo: the center of reason. Attempts to find balance between the id & superegoFreud’s theories:Undermined the Enlightenment’s belief in human rationalismHad significant influence on modern art & literature
80 Searching for International Order Problems:Germany resented the Versailles Treaty’s harsh termsThe United States rejected the Versailles Treaty & followed a policy of isolationFrance was determined to enforce the Versailles Treaty & make Germany pay war reparationsCommunist Russia remained outside the international system
81 Germany: the Weimar Republic Reparations: 30 billion dollarsProposed a 3 year moratorium on payments; France occupied the Ruhr ValleyInflation: HyperinflationPrinted vast amounts of paper moneyBy 1923, one dollar was worth 4 trillion German marksInflation destroyed savings & incomes of German middle classFelt betrayed by their government, would later be susceptible to Nazi propaganda
82 The Kellogg-Briand Pact-1928 Hope for Peace:The Dawes Plan-1923American plan to reestablish a sound German currency & reduce reparationsThe Locarno Pact-1925France, Germany, England, Italy, & Belgium sign; guarantees national bordersThe Kellogg-Briand Pact-192862 countries promised “to renounce war as an instrument of national policy”
83 Conservative Authoritarianism Committed to existing social orderOpposed popular participation in governmentTotalitarianismTotal control over the lives of citizensUsed modern technology & communication to manipulate & censor informationUsed education to mold loyal citizens & demonize scapegoats & enemies
84 Forms of Totalitarianism Fascism:Led by one leader or partyCondemned democracyRival parties undermines national unitySupported state sponsored capitalismGlorified war & aggressive nationalismExercised control over the media
85 Forms of Totalitarianism Soviet Communism:Led by one party: the dictatorship of the proletariatCondemned capitalismIt exploits the workersSupported state ownership of the means of productionGlorified the working classExercised control over the media
86 The NEP (New Economic Policy) revived Russia’s economy Soviet UnionLenin:The NEP (New Economic Policy) revived Russia’s economyLenin dies in 1924Stalin vs TrotskyBy 1928, Stalin was USSRs undisputed leaderStalin:Five Year PlansThe Great Terror (purges)
87 Fascist Italy Postwar Italy: Benito Mussolini Betrayal by Treaty of VersaillesSevere economic crisis: inflation, unemployment, massive national debtFear of Bolshevik influence & revoltBenito Mussolini1922 March on RomeFascist StateState Corporate EconomyThe Lateran Accord: independence for Vatican City
88 Hitler was a spellbinding demagogue Nazi ideology: Nazi GermanyAdolf HitlerWeakness of Weimer Republic helped prepare German public for a bold leaderNazis used political process to legally claim powerHitler was a spellbinding demagogueNazi ideology:NationalismGerman Master RaceAnticommunist, anti-Semitic
89 Chamberlain: “Peace in our time” August 1939 Nazi-Soviet Pact Spanish Civil WarThe Munich Conference 1938Chamberlain: “Peace in our time”August 1939 Nazi-Soviet PactSeptember 1, 1939 – German invasion of PolandHolocaust - factorsJews were a small & vulnerable minorityHitler’s propaganda convinced Germans of Jewish inferiorityGerman secret police successful at stifling dissent
90 Revival of Western Europe Treaty of Rome 1957 Cold WarContainmentTruman DoctrineThe Marshall PlanNATO AllianceThe Warsaw PactThe Berlin AirliftRevival of Western EuropeTreaty of Rome 1957The European Economic CommunityEliminated trade barriers
91 Cold WarStalin dies 1953KhrushchevDe-Stalinization1957 Sputnik1961 The Berlin Wall1962 Cuban Missile CrisisBrezhnevStagnationRichard Nixon & détenteThe Helsinki Accords 1975
92 Collapse of the Soviet Union The Maastricht Treaty End of the Cold WarGorbachevGlasnostPerestroikaDemokratizatsiyaPoland & SolidarityFall of the Berlin Wall 1989Collapse of the Soviet UnionThe Maastricht TreatyCreated the EU & European Central Bank
93 FRQAnalyze the effects of glasnost & perestroika during Mikhail Gorbachev’s presidency in the Soviet Union.To what extent did the Solidarity movement in Poland help bring about the fall of communism & the Soviet Union?