s Exam last 3 Hours and 5 Minutes s 55 Minutes for 80 Multiple Choice Questions s 130 minutes for 3 essays –60 minute Document Based Question Mandatory 15 minutes for Reading & Evaluating Documents 45 minutes for writing –35 Minutes for Free Response Essay Question 5 minutes for planning 30minutes for writing –35 Minutes for Free Response Essay Question Same
s Multiple-choice = 80 questions, measuring the student’s knowledge from High Renaissance- present. –½ of the questions are from the period 1450 to the French Revolutionary & Napoleonic era. –½ are from the French Revolutionary & Napoleonic era to the present. –Questions covering the 19 th century & the 20 th century are divided evenly (approximately 25 percent of the total number of questions for each century) s 1/3 of the questions focus on cultural & intellectual themes s 1/3 focus on political & diplomatic themes s 1/3 focus on social & economic themes.
s Questions fall into 6 basic categories: 1. Identification (45% of the test) - facts 2. NOT/EXCEPT (10% of the test)-choose the answer that is incorrect 3. Analytical (20-25% of the test) - relationships, see connections, place in order 4. Quotation Based (10% or less of the test) - match the quote with the appropriate person 5. Image Interpretation (10% or less of the test) - determine images relevance, purpose, or meaning 6. Map/Graph/Chart Based (10% or less of the test) - identify what a map/data shows, or interpret it's purpose
Grading s 80 Multiple Choice Questions = 1/2 Score –¼ point penalty for guessing has been eliminated s Within the free-response section, the DBQ essay is weighted 45 percent & the two FRQ essays together are weighted 55 percent s For the total exam score, the multiple- choice & the free-response sections are weighted equally
Testing Verbs 1.Analyze: determine the component parts; examine their nature and relationship. “Analyze the major social and technological changes that took place in European warfare between 1789 and 1871.’’ 2.Assess/Evaluate: judge the value or character of something; appraise; evaluate the positive points and the negative ones; give an opinion regarding the value of; discuss the advantages and disadvantages of. “‘Luther was both a revolutionary and a conservative.’ Evaluate this statement with respect to Luther’s responses to the political and social questions of his day.’’ 3.Compare: examine for the purpose of noting similarities and differences. “ Compare the rise to power of fascism in Italy and in Germany.’’
4.Contrast: examine in order to show dissimilarities or points of difference. “Contrast the ways in which European skilled artisans of the mid- eighteenth century and European factory workers of the late nineteenth century differed in their work behavior and in their attitudes toward work.” 5.Describe: give an account of; tell about; give a word picture of. “ Describe and analyze how overseas expansion by European states affected global trade and international relations from 1600 to 1715.” 6.Discuss: talk over; write about; consider or examine by argument or from various points of view; debate; present the different sides of. “Discuss the extent to which nineteenth-century Romanticism was or was not a conservative cultural and intellectual movement.”
AP European M.C. Exam follows 3 major themes: 1. Intellectual & Cultural – 1/3 of questions 2. Political & Diplomatic – 1/3 of questions 3. Social & Economic – 1/3 of questions Clusters of questions: s Key Terms, Key Treaties & Agreements, Key, Intellectual Figures s Russian History, Renaissance, Reformation, French Revolution, women’s history, & Cold War –For example: Karl Marx, the Edict of Nantes, & mercantilism have appear on almost every test s Keep a general timeline – not specific dates
Late Middle Ages s The Black Death s The Hundred Years’ War –Rise of nationalism in France & England s Ecclesiastical power –Unam Sanctum 1302 – Pope Boniface VIII –Avignon Papacy – Great Schism –John Wycliffe & Jan Hus s Kievan Rus
FRQ s Discuss the pre-existing conditions that contributed to the Black Death during the late Middle Ages. s Compare the experiences of peasants and artisans in the aftermath of the Bubonic Plague.
Renaissance s Treaty of Lodi: Defined Northern Italy’ borders s Florence –Cosimo de Medici, Lorenzo de Medici –Girolamo Savonarola s Humanism –Petrarch, Dante, Boccaccio s Machiavelli’s The Prince is often asked –Quotations sometimes used –Machiavelli’s cynical view of human nature & ruthless pragmatic advice
Renaissance & Discovery s Art –Chiaroscuro, linear perspective, triangles/ pyramid configuration, Classical forms combined with Christian subjects s Artists s Focus on key masterpieces that illustrate Renaissance ideals & the impact of humanism –Leonardo da Vinci – Mona Lisa –Raphael – School of Athens –Michelangelo - David
Northern Renaissance s Low Countries, France, England, & Germany s Christian humanists –Far more concerned with religious piety than Italian counter s Literature –Gutenberg, Erasmus, Thomas More s Impact of the printing press on European life & thought –Freedom of expression, spread of information, challenged authorities
Northern Renaissance s Art s First to use & perfect oil painting s More detail s Artists –Albrecht Dürer, Jan Van Eyck
FRQ s Compare the northern Renaissance with the Italian Renaissance in terms of scholarly, literary, and artistic production. s Discuss the importance of the printing press on the Northern Renaissance. s To what extent did the women of Europe experience the Renaissance ?
Age of Exploration s Explorers s Henry the Navigator, Diaz, da Gama, Columbus, Vespucci, Magellan s Columbian Exchange: many questions –Agricultural products, animals, diseases, & human populations involved in the exchange –Effects of the exchange on European population & economy. s Economics: Putting-out system, Joint- stock Companies, & mercantilism
Protestant Reformation s The Great Schism –Resolved by Council of Constance 1414 s Sale of indulgences, nepotism, simony, clerical immorality, absenteeism s German Peasants War s Peace of Augsburg 1555 – “cuius regio, eius religio” s Protestant Leaders: –Martin Luther –Ulrich Zwingli –John Calvin –Thomas Müntzer - Anabaptists
Protestant Reformation s Focus on Luther’s 95 Theses & his dramatic stand against indulgences s Also, keep in mind Luther’s response to the German Peasants War –Sometimes used as an essay topic Social & political consequences of the Protestant Reformation
s English Reformation –Sir Thomas More –Henry VIII –Thomas Cranmer –Thomas Cromwell –Edward VI s Counter-Reformation –Charles V – HRE –Council of Trent 1545-1563 –Jesuits – Ignatius Loyola
FRQ s Consider what family life was like in early modern Europe during the Reformation. Focus on marriage, family size, birth control, education, and childcare. s Defend or refute this statement: The Protestant Reformation was a unified movement of dissent against the Roman Catholic Church. s Compare & contrast the policies of the Catholic Church before and after the Council of Trent.
s Philip II: rules Spain, & Spanish Netherlands s English Queen Elizabeth I: assists the Dutch with $ & troops s Spanish Armada set to invade England s Sir Francis Drake defeats the Armada s Spanish influence declines, England rises
French Religious Wars s Huguenots s St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre 1572 s The Politiques: moderates of both religious faiths - Huguenots & Catholics s Henry Navarre s Edict of Nantes – Know the terms s The Thirty Years’ War 1618-1648 s Protestant League, Catholic League s Peace of Westphalia 1648 –Consequences: Decline of HRE & the delay of German unification, independent Netherlands
FRQ s Describe the experience of the Huguenots in 17 th century France. s Analyze some of the existing conditions that led to the Thirty Years’ War. s Analyze the achievements & disappointments of the Thirty Years’ War.
17 th Century s Economy: Dutch Republic –Amsterdam – Europe’s leading commercial center during the 17 th Century s English Civil War –Focus on causes & consequences of the changing relationships between the monarchy & Parliament s Glorious Revolution s Constitutional Monarchy – English Bill of Rights
Age of Absolutism s Henry Navarre s Nobles of the Robe, Nobles of the Sword s Louis XIII s Cardinal Richelieu s The Intendant system – weaken the nobility s Louis XIV s Cardinal Mazarin s The Fronde uprising s Intendant system & the Fronde generate many questions
Age of Absolutism s Louis XIV – the “Sun King” s "L'État, c'est moi" ("I am the State") s War of Spanish Succession s Treaty of Utrecht 1713 s Hapsburg Austria s Rise of Prussia s Pragmatic Sanction – Maria Theresa s Rise of Russia – Romanov dynasty s Peter the Great – modernization programs generate numerous questions
Scientific Revolution s Old assumptions – geocentric –Aristotle & Ptolemy –Catholic Church s New – Heliocentric - Copernicus s Tycho Brahe & Kepler – planetary motion s Galileo s Scientific Method - Sir Francis Bacon & Descartes s Physical Laws – Newton s AP Euro exam expects you to discuss how pivotal figures of the Scientific Revolution adopted a new view of nature that challenged long held views of the relationship between humanity & the universe.
The Enlightenment s The Philosophes –Dedicated to exposing social problems & proposing reforms based upon implementing natural laws. s Main ideas: Reason, Natural laws, Happiness, Progress, Liberty, Toleration. s Deism s Voltaire, Diderot, Montesquieu, Rousseau s Voltaire & Rousseau generate the most questions. –Understand: Voltaire supported religious toleration & opposed superstition & ignorance. Rousseau: concept of the general will & views of education (Emile)
The Enlightenment s Economic s French Physiocrats: first to question mercantilism s Suggested laissez-faire policies of government s Adam Smith – Wealth of Nations 1.Laissez-faire 2.Free markets 3.Self interest = the “invisible guiding hand” s Students may be asked to compare the economic policies of Jean-Baptiste Colbert & Adam Smith –Colbert supports mercantilism to strengthen France.
FRQ s Evaluate the political, social, & cultural reforms Enlightenment thinkers sought in 18 th century European society. s Discuss the attitudes of Enlightenment thinkers towards organized religion.
Rivalries 1740-1763 s Great Britain prospers s Colonization & trade, Robert Walpole: 1 st PM s France - Louis XV, prosperity continues, but debt continues to mount –7 Years’ War 1756-1763 – Treaty of Paris 1763 s Prussia – Hohenzollerns s Austria – Hapsburgs –War of Austrian Succession 1740-1748 –Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle
Enlightened Despots s Divine-right monarchy evolved into enlightened despotism s Urged by the philosophes to use absolute rule for the good of the people s Combat ignorance & superstition s Promote religious toleration s George III – England s Louis XV – France –Both had little or no interest in either the philosophes or concept of enlightened despotism
Enlightened Despots s Catherine the Great – 1762-1796 s Reforms: 1. Supported Russia’s first private printing presses 2. Restricted use of torture 3. Permitted toleration to Jewish communities 4. Commissioned new “enlightened” law code –Nobles refused s Pugachev’s Rebellion – 1773-1775 s Territorial expansion into Ottoman & Polish lands
Enlightened Despots s Frederick the Great – 1740-1786 s Reforms: 1. Supported scientific agriculture 2. Prepared a unified national code of law 3. Abolished torture 4. Encouraged immigration by Huguenots & Jews into Prussia s Strengthened Junkers –Students are often asked to make comparisons between Peter the Great & Frederick the Great – goals & policies
Enlightened Despots s Joseph II– 1780-1790 s Reforms: 1. Abolished serfdom & feudal dues 2. Abolished forced labor 3. Religious toleration for Christians & Jews 4. Reduced influence of the church 5. Reformed judicial system 6. Abolished torture & ended the death penalty s Nobles bitterly opposed reforms –Most policies repealed following death of Joseph
FRQ s Enlightened despots have generated MC & FRQs. s Discuss the extent to which Catherine the Great, Frederick the Great, & Joseph II succeeded & failed as Enlightened despots.
Agricultural Revolution s Innovations in the Low Countries: s Enclosed fields s Use of manure as fertilizer s Planting variety of crops s Drainage to reclaim marshes for farmland s England s Charles Townshend: crop rotation s Jethro Tull: seed drill s Robert Blakewell: selective livestock breeding s Enclosure system: England & the Low Countries –Successfully resisted in France & Germany
18 th Century s Population growth s List factors s Marriage & family life in the 18 th century s Rise & fall of Witchcraft –AP Euro exam: important to remember that witchcraft trial & executions most often affected elderly widows & mid-wives. Know the reasons for the growth & decline of witchcraft.
Industrial Revolution s England s Textiles s Spinning Jenny, the Water Frame, the Steam Engine, increased iron production. s The Growth of Cities s Jewish populations: the age of the Ghetto in Eastern Europe.
FRQ s Consider how popular consumption was affected by the Industrial Revolution & the shift of populations to urban centers. s Describe some of the ways in which the Industrial Revolution transformed the workplace for women.
Trans-Atlantic Economy & Revolution s The Treaty of Utrecht 1713 s Colonies s Americas, West Indies, Indian subcontinent s Spanish colonial system s African Slavery, the Plantation System s War of Jenkins Ear s Seven Years’ War 1756-1763 –Treaty of Paris 1763 s American Revolution 1775-1781 –Treaty of Paris 1783
FRQ s Discuss how slavery was linked to the economies of Europe, the Americas, & Africa. s To what extent was the War of the American Revolution a European conflict?
French Revolutions – 1789-1815 s Ancien Regime s 3 Estates s Peasant distress s Government debt s Aristocratic resistance s Royal weakness s Estates General s Tennis Court Oath s The National Assembly s Declaration of the Rights of Man & Citizen s Rights of women
French Revolutions – 1789-1815 s Women’s March on Versailles s Civil Constitution of the Clergy s The Legislative Assembly s San-culottes, Jacobins & Girondists: goals s Declaration of Pilnitz s September Massacres s The National Convention s Execution of Louis XVI & Marie Antoinette s European reaction s Reign of Terror s Termidorian Reaction
French Revolutions – 1789-1815 s The Directory & the rise of Napoleon s First Consul s The Napoleonic Code s The Concordant of 1801 s Napoleonic Empire 1804 s Submission of Europe – Battle of Austerlitz s Battle of Trafalgar s Confederation of the Rhine s The Continental System & the Fall of Napoleon –Focus on the impact Napoleon’s conquests had on spreading nationalism & in dissolving the HRE.
FRQ s To what extent was the Third Estate responsible for altering the course of the French government? s Analyze the political, economic, & social factors that helped bring about the French Revolution as well as those that led to its downfall.
Restoration s Forces of the Past: –Traditional Monarchy, Aristocracy, Church, Patriarchal family –Conservatism-belief that tradition is essential & any change should be gradual s Forces of the Future: –Industrialization –Liberalism-belief in gov’t protection of citizen’s natural rights –Nationalism-belief that a nation consists of people sharing traditions, history, & language
Restoration s Congress of Vienna –Prince Klemens von Metternich –Principle of Legitimacy –Balance of Power –Territorial settlements –Evaluation s Concert of Europe s Quadruple Alliance s Reaction: –Young Germans protest – Metternich issues Carlsbad Decrees –Russia – Decembrist Revolt 1825
Romanticism s Reaction to Enlightenment Reason s Key: Primacy of Emotion s Inspired by the power & majesty of nature s Comparison: Enlightenment vs. Romanticism s E: mechanical view of the universe & human nature s Rejected faith, sought reason to explain relationships s R: belief in a loving, personal God, stressed emotions, inner faith, & religious inspiration s Writers: William Wordsworth, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Johan Wolfgang von Goethe, Victor Hugo, Brothers Grimm s Artists: Friedrich – Wanderer above the Mist, Francisco Goya – The Third of May 1808 s Composers: Beethoven, Wagner
Romanticism s Writers: –William Wordsworth – Prelude –Samuel Taylor Coleridge – Rhime of the Ancient Mariner –Johan Wolfgang von Goethe - Faust –Victor Hugo – The Hunchback of Notre Dame –Brothers Grimm - Grimm’s Fairy Tales s Artists: –Friedrich – Wanderer above the Mist –Francisco Goya – The Third of May 1808 s Composers: –Beethoven – Ninth Symphony –Richard Wagner – The Ring of Nibelung
FRQ s Analyze the differences between nationalism, conservatism, & liberalism as these ideologies were expressed in the early 19 th century. s Using examples from the works of at least two English Romantics, describe the philosophy of the Romantic movement in literature. –Many AP Euro questions are generated for Romanticism, & its comparison to Enlightenment ideals
Industrial Revolutions s 1 st - 1700-1800: textiles, iron, coal & steam, railroads s Creation of the factory system s Division of labor s Increased demand, lower wages s Social changes: urbanization, pace of life, standardization of work, & heightened class consciousness s 2 nd - 1820-1900: steel, electricity, oil, gasoline, chemicals s Communication
Industrial Revolutions s Reactions: s Thomas Malthus – population s David Ricardo – wages s Luddites s Early labor unions s Robert Owen – utopian socialism s Marx & Engels – Communist Manifesto –Marxism is one of the most frequently tested topics. Quotes & concepts are often posed. Ex. Class conflict, dictatorship of the proletariat, & classless society
Liberal Reform s England –The Reform Bill of 1832 –Repeal of the Corn Laws –The Chartist Movement –Feminists –Suffragette Movement Emmeline Pankhurst s France –Revolution of 1830 –Charles X overthrown –Louis Phillipe elected: “Citizen King”
Science & Art s Louis Pasteur s Robert Koch s Joseph Lister s Charles Darwin –Theory of Evolution s Social Darwinism s Art s Impressionism s Cubism
Revolutions of 1848 s Causes: –Conservatives responding to industrialization & socialization –Working class radicals & middle class liberals –Nationalists in France, Germany, Austria, & Italy –Widespread crop failures s Key points: –France: Louis Philippe's gov’t collapsed, Louis Napoleon elected, Second Republic established –Revolutions of 1848 failed: internal divisions, a lack of popular support outside the cities, and the continued strength of conservative order –Peaceful reforms enabled England to avoid revolts –Repressive policies stifled reform in Russia
FRQ s Consider various forms of 19 th century prison reform. s Discuss the continuities & changes in societal roles for women during the Second Industrial Revolution.
Crimean War s Causes: –Weakness of the Ottoman Empire –Fighting for control over territories held by the Ottomans –Austria threatened by Russian expansion –B & F opposed changes in regional balance of power s Consequences: –Russia suffers humiliating defeat –Tsar Alexander II launches ambitious reforms Emancipation of the serfs –Creation of zemstvos
Unification s Italy: –Revolutionaries: Mazzini, Cavour, Garibaldi –Victor Emmanuel rules conquered areas Problems: economic differences between rich north & poor south Heavy Debt s Germany: –Prussian leadership: William I, Otto von Bismarck – realpolitik, Blood & iron –War with Denmark –War with Austria –War with France –Declaration of the German Empire –Reaction: Austria-Hungary unite – Dual Monarchy
s France: –The Paris Commune 1871 –The Dreyfus Affair Emile Zola – J’Accuse! s England: –William Gladstone & Benjamin Disraeli –The Irish question s Russia: Nicholas II –Bloody Sunday –Revolution of 1905 –October Manifesto –Bolsheviks & Mensheviks s Germany: –William II
FRQ s Explain how anti-Semitism developed, despite advancements made by Western European Jews following the French Revolution. s Describe the steps taken by feminists in the late 19 th century & early 20 th century. What issues did they tackle & what was the outcome? Were they successful in their causes?
Imperialism s Old: –16 th & 17 th centuries –Dutch, Spanish, English, & French colonialism Coastal Africa, Indian, Indonesia, & the Americas s New: –Beginning in the 1870s –Direct economic & political control over Africa & Asia Scramble for Africa, Berlin Conference British Raj in India s Only Liberia & Ethiopia remained independent
Imperialism s Motives: –New sources of raw materials & new markets –Power & prestige –Social Darwinism –Christian missionaries – “civilizing mission” s Consequences: –Damaged or destroyed native cultures –Created global economy –Intensified European rivalries
FRQ s Analyze the causes & effects of the European Imperialism of the 19 th century.
WWI s March towards war: –Germany & the new Balance of Power –Britain & France out produced by German industry –Sharp increase in German population –Bismarck’s network of Alliances: Austria-Hungary & Italy (Triple Alliance) & 1887 treaty with Russia –William II – “One master of the Reich” s Reaction: –1894 Franco-Russian Alliance –Britain abandons “splendid isolation” policy –Formation of the Triple Entente
WWI s Balkan Powder Keg: –Ottoman’s power decreases –Nationalism rising –Pan-Slavism (with Russian support) –1908 Austria-Hungary annexes Bosnia & Herzegovina s Spark: –June 28, 1914 Gavrilo Princip assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand in Sarajevo –Germany’s “Blank Check” to Austria-Hungary
WWI s Aspects of war –The Schlieffen Plan –Stalemate (Trench Warfare) –War Technologies –Total War –The role of Women –All Quiet On The Western Front s Russian Revolution –End of Romanov Rule –The Provisional Government –Lenin & the Bolshevik Revolution –The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk –Civil War
WWI s The Peace Settlement –American intervention –William II abdicates –11-11-1918 Armistice –Wilson’s 14 Points s The Paris Peace Conference s The Treaty of Versailles –German War Guilt –Germany loses 13% of its land –German territories in Africa & the Pacific mandated to Britain, France, & Japan –Poland gains independence –German army limited to 100K, no war industry allowed –Demilitarization of the Rhine
WWI s New Map of Europe –Austria-Hungary dissolved, Hapsburg monarchy eliminated –Creation of Czechoslovakia & Yugoslavia –Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania emerged –Elimination of Monarchies in Austria-Hungary, Germany, & Russia s The Paris Peace Conference –Created the League of Nations –Created a legacy of bitterness between both the victors & the defeated
FRQ s The AP Euro test devotes few questions to the extreme details of the events that led to the outbreak of WWI. –Spend the majority of time studying the consequences of the war for the countries involved. s Lenin’s pivotal role in the Russian Revolution has generated a significant number of MC questions. Be sure to study Lenin’s key ideas. –Often, comparisons will be made between Lenin’s power & leadership with the weakness of Tsar Nicholas II & Alexander Kerensky.
Impact of WWI s Caused unprecedented death & destruction s Overthrew established monarchies & social orders s Led many people to question the optimistic belief in reason, progress, & individual rights s Uncertainties: –Widespread feeling of disillusionment, uncertainty, & anxiety –New doubts about the ability of individuals to control their lives –An intellectual crisis that affected every field of thought
Modern Philosophy s Friedrich Nietzsche – 1844-1900 –Expressed contempt for middle-class morality Saying that it led to a false & shallow existence –Argued that conventional notions of good & evil are only relevant for the ordinary person –Rejected reason & embraced the irrational –Believed that the “will to power” of a few heroic “super men” could successfully restructure the world s Existentialism: –Reason & science are incapable of providing insight into the human condition –God, reason, & progress are myths; humans live in a hostile world, alone & isolated –A person is the sum of their actions & choices
Modern Philosophy s Albert Einstein – 1879-1955 s Theory of Relativity: E = mc 2 –Energy = mass x the square of the speed of light s Energy & mass are interchangeable –The foundation for the development of nuclear power s Implications: –The universe has few certainties –Everything is “relevant” or dependent on the observers frame of reference –Upsets the optimistic view that the universe was predictable & orderly
Modern Philosophy s Sigmund Freud – 1856-1939 s Believed the human psyche includes three distinct parts: id, superego, & the ego –Id: inborn sexual & aggressive urges –Superego: acts as a conscience seeking to repress the id. Drives desires into the subconscious, which is irrational & recognizes no ethical restrictions –Ego: the center of reason. Attempts to find balance between the id & superego s Freud’s theories: –Undermined the Enlightenment’s belief in human rationalism –Had significant influence on modern art & literature
Searching for International Order s Problems: –Germany resented the Versailles Treaty’s harsh terms –The United States rejected the Versailles Treaty & followed a policy of isolation –France was determined to enforce the Versailles Treaty & make Germany pay war reparations –Communist Russia remained outside the international system
s Germany: the Weimar Republic –Reparations: 30 billion dollars –Proposed a 3 year moratorium on payments; France occupied the Ruhr Valley –Inflation: Hyperinflation Printed vast amounts of paper money –By 1923, one dollar was worth 4 trillion German marks s Inflation destroyed savings & incomes of German middle class –Felt betrayed by their government, would later be susceptible to Nazi propaganda
s Hope for Peace: s The Dawes Plan-1923 –American plan to reestablish a sound German currency & reduce reparations s The Locarno Pact-1925 –France, Germany, England, Italy, & Belgium sign; guarantees national borders s The Kellogg-Briand Pact-1928 –62 countries promised “to renounce war as an instrument of national policy”
s Conservative Authoritarianism –Committed to existing social order –Opposed popular participation in government s Totalitarianism –Total control over the lives of citizens –Used modern technology & communication to manipulate & censor information –Used education to mold loyal citizens & demonize scapegoats & enemies
Forms of Totalitarianism s Fascism: s Led by one leader or party s Condemned democracy –Rival parties undermines national unity s Supported state sponsored capitalism s Glorified war & aggressive nationalism s Exercised control over the media
Forms of Totalitarianism s Soviet Communism: s Led by one party: the dictatorship of the proletariat s Condemned capitalism –It exploits the workers s Supported state ownership of the means of production s Glorified the working class s Exercised control over the media
Soviet Union s Lenin: s The NEP (New Economic Policy) revived Russia’s economy s Lenin dies in 1924 s Stalin vs Trotsky –By 1928, Stalin was USSRs undisputed leader s Stalin: s Five Year Plans s The Great Terror (purges)
Fascist Italy s Postwar Italy: –Betrayal by Treaty of Versailles –Severe economic crisis: inflation, unemployment, massive national debt –Fear of Bolshevik influence & revolt s Benito Mussolini –1922 March on Rome –Fascist State –State Corporate Economy –The Lateran Accord: independence for Vatican City
Nazi Germany s Adolf Hitler –Weakness of Weimer Republic helped prepare German public for a bold leader –Nazis used political process to legally claim power s Hitler was a spellbinding demagogue s Nazi ideology: –Nationalism –German Master Race –Anticommunist, anti-Semitic
s Spanish Civil War s The Munich Conference 1938 s Chamberlain: “Peace in our time” s August 1939 Nazi-Soviet Pact s September 1, 1939 – German invasion of Poland s Holocaust - factors –Jews were a small & vulnerable minority –Hitler’s propaganda convinced Germans of Jewish inferiority –German secret police successful at stifling dissent
Cold War s Containment s Truman Doctrine s The Marshall Plan s NATO Alliance s The Warsaw Pact s The Berlin Airlift s Revival of Western Europe s Treaty of Rome 1957 –The European Economic Community Eliminated trade barriers
Cold War s Stalin dies 1953 s Khrushchev 1953-1964 s De-Stalinization s 1957 Sputnik s 1961 The Berlin Wall s 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis s Brezhnev 1964-1982 s Stagnation s Richard Nixon & détente s The Helsinki Accords 1975
End of the Cold War s Gorbachev 1985-1991 s Glasnost s Perestroika s Demokratizatsiya s Poland & Solidarity s Fall of the Berlin Wall 1989 s Collapse of the Soviet Union s The Maastricht Treaty –Created the EU & European Central Bank
FRQ s Analyze the effects of glasnost & perestroika during Mikhail Gorbachev’s presidency in the Soviet Union. s To what extent did the Solidarity movement in Poland help bring about the fall of communism & the Soviet Union?