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AP Üro Review.

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1 AP Üro Review

2 2010 Scores 5 13,007 12.7% 4 18,854 18.4% 3 35,432 34.5% 2 11,543 11.2% 1 23,793 23.2% Total 102,629 Ave. 2.86 3 or Higher 67,293 65.6%

3 Exam last 3 Hours and 5 Minutes
55 Minutes for 80 Multiple Choice Questions 130 minutes for 3 essays 60 minute Document Based Question Mandatory 15 minutes for Reading & Evaluating Documents 45 minutes for writing 35 Minutes for Free Response Essay Question 5 minutes for planning 30minutes for writing Same

4 1/3 of the questions focus on cultural & intellectual themes
Multiple-choice = 80 questions, measuring the student’s knowledge from High Renaissance-present. ½ of the questions are from the period 1450 to the French Revolutionary & Napoleonic era. ½ are from the French Revolutionary & Napoleonic era to the present. Questions covering the 19th century & the 20th century are divided evenly (approximately 25 percent of the total number of questions for each century) 1/3 of the questions focus on cultural & intellectual themes 1/3 focus on political & diplomatic themes 1/3 focus on social & economic themes.

5 Identification (45% of the test) - facts
Questions fall into 6 basic categories: Identification (45% of the test) - facts NOT/EXCEPT (10% of the test)-choose the answer that is incorrect Analytical (20-25% of the test) - relationships, see connections, place in order Quotation Based (10% or less of the test) - match the quote with the appropriate person Image Interpretation (10% or less of the test) - determine images relevance, purpose, or meaning Map/Graph/Chart Based (10% or less of the test) - identify what a map/data shows, or interpret it's purpose

6 80 Multiple Choice Questions = 1/2 Score
Grading 80 Multiple Choice Questions = 1/2 Score ¼ point penalty for guessing has been eliminated Within the free-response section, the DBQ essay is weighted 45 percent & the two FRQ essays together are weighted 55 percent For the total exam score, the multiple-choice & the free-response sections are weighted equally

7 Testing Verbs 1.Analyze: determine the component parts; examine their nature and relationship. “Analyze the major social and technological changes that took place in European warfare between 1789 and 1871.’’ 2.Assess/Evaluate: judge the value or character of something; appraise; evaluate the positive points and the negative ones; give an opinion regarding the value of; discuss the advantages and disadvantages of. “‘Luther was both a revolutionary and a conservative.’ Evaluate this statement with respect to Luther’s responses to the political and social questions of his day.’’ 3.Compare: examine for the purpose of noting similarities and differences. “Compare the rise to power of fascism in Italy and in Germany.’’

8 5.Describe: give an account of; tell about; give a word picture of.
4.Contrast: examine in order to show dissimilarities or points of difference. “Contrast the ways in which European skilled artisans of the mid-eighteenth century and European factory workers of the late nineteenth century differed in their work behavior and in their attitudes toward work.” 5.Describe: give an account of; tell about; give a word picture of. “Describe and analyze how overseas expansion by European states affected global trade and international relations from 1600 to 1715.” 6.Discuss: talk over; write about; consider or examine by argument or from various points of view; debate; present the different sides of. “Discuss the extent to which nineteenth-century Romanticism was or was not a conservative cultural and intellectual movement.”

9 AP European M.C. Exam follows 3 major themes:
Intellectual & Cultural – 1/3 of questions Political & Diplomatic – 1/3 of questions Social & Economic – 1/3 of questions Clusters of questions: Key Terms, Key Treaties & Agreements, Key, Intellectual Figures Russian History, Renaissance, Reformation, French Revolution, women’s history, & Cold War For example: Karl Marx, the Edict of Nantes, & mercantilism have appear on almost every test Keep a general timeline – not specific dates

10 Unit 1 Chapters 1-5

11 Late Middle Ages The Black Death The Hundred Years’ War
Rise of nationalism in France & England Ecclesiastical power Unam Sanctum 1302 – Pope Boniface VIII Avignon Papacy – Great Schism John Wycliffe & Jan Hus Kievan Rus

12 FRQ Discuss the pre-existing conditions that contributed to the Black Death during the late Middle Ages. Compare the experiences of peasants and artisans in the aftermath of the Bubonic Plague.

13 Treaty of Lodi: Defined Northern Italy’ borders Florence
Renaissance Treaty of Lodi: Defined Northern Italy’ borders Florence Cosimo de Medici, Lorenzo de Medici Girolamo Savonarola Humanism Petrarch, Dante, Boccaccio Machiavelli’s The Prince is often asked Quotations sometimes used Machiavelli’s cynical view of human nature & ruthless pragmatic advice

14 Renaissance & Discovery
Art Chiaroscuro, linear perspective, triangles/ pyramid configuration, Classical forms combined with Christian subjects Artists Focus on key masterpieces that illustrate Renaissance ideals & the impact of humanism Leonardo da Vinci – Mona Lisa Raphael – School of Athens Michelangelo - David

15 Low Countries, France, England, & Germany Christian humanists
Northern Renaissance Low Countries, France, England, & Germany Christian humanists Far more concerned with religious piety than Italian counter Literature Gutenberg, Erasmus, Thomas More Impact of the printing press on European life & thought Freedom of expression, spread of information, challenged authorities

16 First to use & perfect oil painting More detail Artists
Northern Renaissance Art First to use & perfect oil painting More detail Artists Albrecht Dürer, Jan Van Eyck

17 FRQ Compare the northern Renaissance with the Italian Renaissance in terms of scholarly, literary, and artistic production. Discuss the importance of the printing press on the Northern Renaissance. To what extent did the women of Europe experience the Renaissance ?

18 Columbian Exchange: many questions
Age of Exploration Explorers Henry the Navigator, Diaz, da Gama, Columbus, Vespucci, Magellan Columbian Exchange: many questions Agricultural products, animals, diseases, & human populations involved in the exchange Effects of the exchange on European population & economy. Economics: Putting-out system, Joint-stock Companies, & mercantilism

19 Protestant Reformation
The Great Schism Resolved by Council of Constance 1414 Sale of indulgences, nepotism, simony, clerical immorality, absenteeism German Peasants War Peace of Augsburg 1555 – “cuius regio, eius religio” Protestant Leaders: Martin Luther Ulrich Zwingli John Calvin Thomas Müntzer - Anabaptists

20 Protestant Reformation
Focus on Luther’s 95 Theses & his dramatic stand against indulgences Also, keep in mind Luther’s response to the German Peasants War Sometimes used as an essay topic Social & political consequences of the Protestant Reformation

21 English Reformation Counter-Reformation Sir Thomas More Henry VIII
Thomas Cranmer Thomas Cromwell Edward VI Counter-Reformation Charles V – HRE Council of Trent Jesuits – Ignatius Loyola

22 FRQ Consider what family life was like in early modern Europe during the Reformation. Focus on marriage, family size, birth control, education, and childcare. Defend or refute this statement: The Protestant Reformation was a unified movement of dissent against the Roman Catholic Church. Compare & contrast the policies of the Catholic Church before and after the Council of Trent.

23 Philip II: rules Spain, & Spanish Netherlands
English Queen Elizabeth I: assists the Dutch with $ & troops Spanish Armada set to invade England Sir Francis Drake defeats the Armada Spanish influence declines, England rises

24 French Religious Wars Huguenots St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre 1572
The Politiques: moderates of both religious faiths - Huguenots & Catholics Henry Navarre Edict of Nantes – Know the terms The Thirty Years’ War Protestant League, Catholic League Peace of Westphalia 1648 Consequences: Decline of HRE & the delay of German unification, independent Netherlands

25 FRQ Describe the experience of the Huguenots in 17th century France. Analyze some of the existing conditions that led to the Thirty Years’ War. Analyze the achievements & disappointments of the Thirty Years’ War.

26 17th Century Economy: Dutch Republic English Civil War
Amsterdam – Europe’s leading commercial center during the 17th Century English Civil War Focus on causes & consequences of the changing relationships between the monarchy & Parliament Glorious Revolution Constitutional Monarchy – English Bill of Rights

27 Age of Absolutism Henry Navarre
Nobles of the Robe, Nobles of the Sword Louis XIII Cardinal Richelieu The Intendant system – weaken the nobility Louis XIV Cardinal Mazarin The Fronde uprising Intendant system & the Fronde generate many questions

28 Age of Absolutism Louis XIV – the “Sun King”
"L'État, c'est moi" ("I am the State") War of Spanish Succession Treaty of Utrecht 1713 Hapsburg Austria Rise of Prussia Pragmatic Sanction – Maria Theresa Rise of Russia – Romanov dynasty Peter the Great – modernization programs generate numerous questions

29 Unit 2 Chapters 6-10

30 Scientific Revolution
Old assumptions – geocentric Aristotle & Ptolemy Catholic Church New – Heliocentric - Copernicus Tycho Brahe & Kepler – planetary motion Galileo Scientific Method - Sir Francis Bacon & Descartes Physical Laws – Newton AP Euro exam expects you to discuss how pivotal figures of the Scientific Revolution adopted a new view of nature that challenged long held views of the relationship between humanity & the universe.

31 The Enlightenment The Philosophes
Dedicated to exposing social problems & proposing reforms based upon implementing natural laws. Main ideas: Reason, Natural laws, Happiness, Progress, Liberty, Toleration. Deism Voltaire, Diderot, Montesquieu, Rousseau Voltaire & Rousseau generate the most questions. Understand: Voltaire supported religious toleration & opposed superstition & ignorance. Rousseau: concept of the general will & views of education (Emile)

32 The Enlightenment Economic
French Physiocrats: first to question mercantilism Suggested laissez-faire policies of government Adam Smith – Wealth of Nations Laissez-faire Free markets Self interest = the “invisible guiding hand” Students may be asked to compare the economic policies of Jean-Baptiste Colbert & Adam Smith Colbert supports mercantilism to strengthen France.

33 FRQ Evaluate the political, social , & cultural reforms Enlightenment thinkers sought in 18th century European society. Discuss the attitudes of Enlightenment thinkers towards organized religion.

34 Great Britain prospers Colonization & trade, Robert Walpole: 1st PM
Rivalries Great Britain prospers Colonization & trade, Robert Walpole: 1st PM France - Louis XV, prosperity continues, but debt continues to mount 7 Years’ War – Treaty of Paris 1763 Prussia – Hohenzollerns Austria – Hapsburgs War of Austrian Succession Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle

35 Enlightened Despots Divine-right monarchy evolved into enlightened despotism Urged by the philosophes to use absolute rule for the good of the people Combat ignorance & superstition Promote religious toleration George III – England Louis XV – France Both had little or no interest in either the philosophes or concept of enlightened despotism

36 Enlightened Despots Catherine the Great – 1762-1796 Reforms:
Supported Russia’s first private printing presses Restricted use of torture Permitted toleration to Jewish communities Commissioned new “enlightened” law code Nobles refused Pugachev’s Rebellion – Territorial expansion into Ottoman & Polish lands

37 Enlightened Despots Frederick the Great – 1740-1786 Reforms:
Supported scientific agriculture Prepared a unified national code of law Abolished torture Encouraged immigration by Huguenots & Jews into Prussia Strengthened Junkers Students are often asked to make comparisons between Peter the Great & Frederick the Great – goals & policies

38 Enlightened Despots Joseph II– 1780-1790 Reforms:
Abolished serfdom & feudal dues Abolished forced labor Religious toleration for Christians & Jews Reduced influence of the church Reformed judicial system Abolished torture & ended the death penalty Nobles bitterly opposed reforms Most policies repealed following death of Joseph

39 FRQ Enlightened despots have generated MC & FRQs. Discuss the extent to which Catherine the Great, Frederick the Great, & Joseph II succeeded & failed as Enlightened despots.

40 Agricultural Revolution
Innovations in the Low Countries: Enclosed fields Use of manure as fertilizer Planting variety of crops Drainage to reclaim marshes for farmland England Charles Townshend: crop rotation Jethro Tull: seed drill Robert Blakewell: selective livestock breeding Enclosure system: England & the Low Countries Successfully resisted in France & Germany

41 Marriage & family life in the 18th century Rise & fall of Witchcraft
Population growth List factors Marriage & family life in the 18th century Rise & fall of Witchcraft AP Euro exam: important to remember that witchcraft trial & executions most often affected elderly widows & mid-wives. Know the reasons for the growth & decline of witchcraft.

42 Industrial Revolution
England Textiles Spinning Jenny, the Water Frame, the Steam Engine, increased iron production. The Growth of Cities Jewish populations: the age of the Ghetto in Eastern Europe.

43 FRQ Consider how popular consumption was affected by the Industrial Revolution & the shift of populations to urban centers. Describe some of the ways in which the Industrial Revolution transformed the workplace for women.

44 Trans-Atlantic Economy & Revolution
The Treaty of Utrecht 1713 Colonies Americas, West Indies, Indian subcontinent Spanish colonial system African Slavery, the Plantation System War of Jenkins Ear Seven Years’ War Treaty of Paris 1763 American Revolution Treaty of Paris 1783

45 FRQ Discuss how slavery was linked to the economies of Europe, the Americas, & Africa. To what extent was the War of the American Revolution a European conflict?

46 French Revolutions – Ancien Regime 3 Estates Peasant distress Government debt Aristocratic resistance Royal weakness Estates General Tennis Court Oath The National Assembly Declaration of the Rights of Man & Citizen Rights of women

47 French Revolutions – Women’s March on Versailles Civil Constitution of the Clergy The Legislative Assembly San-culottes, Jacobins & Girondists: goals Declaration of Pilnitz September Massacres The National Convention Execution of Louis XVI & Marie Antoinette European reaction Reign of Terror Termidorian Reaction

48 The Directory & the rise of Napoleon First Consul The Napoleonic Code
French Revolutions – The Directory & the rise of Napoleon First Consul The Napoleonic Code The Concordant of 1801 Napoleonic Empire 1804 Submission of Europe – Battle of Austerlitz Battle of Trafalgar Confederation of the Rhine The Continental System & the Fall of Napoleon Focus on the impact Napoleon’s conquests had on spreading nationalism & in dissolving the HRE.

49 FRQ To what extent was the Third Estate responsible for altering the course of the French government? Analyze the political, economic, & social factors that helped bring about the French Revolution as well as those that led to its downfall.

50 Restoration Forces of the Past: Forces of the Future: Traditional
Monarchy, Aristocracy, Church, Patriarchal family Conservatism-belief that tradition is essential & any change should be gradual Forces of the Future: Industrialization Liberalism-belief in gov’t protection of citizen’s natural rights Nationalism-belief that a nation consists of people sharing traditions, history, & language

51 Restoration Congress of Vienna Concert of Europe Quadruple Alliance
Prince Klemens von Metternich Principle of Legitimacy Balance of Power Territorial settlements Evaluation Concert of Europe Quadruple Alliance Reaction: Young Germans protest – Metternich issues Carlsbad Decrees Russia – Decembrist Revolt 1825

52 Romanticism Reaction to Enlightenment Reason Key: Primacy of Emotion
Inspired by the power & majesty of nature Comparison: Enlightenment vs. Romanticism E: mechanical view of the universe & human nature Rejected faith, sought reason to explain relationships R: belief in a loving, personal God, stressed emotions, inner faith, & religious inspiration Writers: William Wordsworth, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Johan Wolfgang von Goethe, Victor Hugo, Brothers Grimm Artists: Friedrich – Wanderer above the Mist, Francisco Goya – The Third of May 1808 Composers: Beethoven, Wagner

53 Romanticism Writers: Artists: Composers: William Wordsworth – Prelude
Samuel Taylor Coleridge – Rhime of the Ancient Mariner Johan Wolfgang von Goethe - Faust Victor Hugo – The Hunchback of Notre Dame Brothers Grimm - Grimm’s Fairy Tales Artists: Friedrich – Wanderer above the Mist Francisco Goya – The Third of May 1808 Composers: Beethoven – Ninth Symphony Richard Wagner – The Ring of Nibelung

54 FRQ Analyze the differences between nationalism, conservatism, & liberalism as these ideologies were expressed in the early 19th century. Using examples from the works of at least two English Romantics, describe the philosophy of the Romantic movement in literature. Many AP Euro questions are generated for Romanticism, & its comparison to Enlightenment ideals

55 Industrial Revolutions
1st : textiles, iron, coal & steam, railroads Creation of the factory system Division of labor Increased demand, lower wages Social changes: urbanization, pace of life, standardization of work, & heightened class consciousness 2nd : steel, electricity, oil, gasoline, chemicals Communication

56 Industrial Revolutions
Reactions: Thomas Malthus – population David Ricardo – wages Luddites Early labor unions Robert Owen – utopian socialism Marx & Engels – Communist Manifesto Marxism is one of the most frequently tested topics. Quotes & concepts are often posed. Ex. Class conflict, dictatorship of the proletariat, & classless society

57 Liberal Reform England France The Reform Bill of 1832
Repeal of the Corn Laws The Chartist Movement Feminists Suffragette Movement Emmeline Pankhurst France Revolution of 1830 Charles X overthrown Louis Phillipe elected: “Citizen King”

58 Science & Art Louis Pasteur Robert Koch Joseph Lister Charles Darwin
Theory of Evolution Social Darwinism Art Impressionism Cubism

59 Revolutions of 1848 Causes: Key points:
Conservatives responding to industrialization & socialization Working class radicals & middle class liberals Nationalists in France, Germany, Austria, & Italy Widespread crop failures Key points: France: Louis Philippe's gov’t collapsed, Louis Napoleon elected, Second Republic established Revolutions of 1848 failed: internal divisions, a lack of popular support outside the cities, and the continued strength of conservative order Peaceful reforms enabled England to avoid revolts Repressive policies stifled reform in Russia

60 FRQ Consider various forms of 19th century prison reform. Discuss the continuities & changes in societal roles for women during the Second Industrial Revolution.

61 Crimean War Causes: Consequences: Weakness of the Ottoman Empire
Fighting for control over territories held by the Ottomans Austria threatened by Russian expansion B & F opposed changes in regional balance of power Consequences: Russia suffers humiliating defeat Tsar Alexander II launches ambitious reforms Emancipation of the serfs Creation of zemstvos

62 Unification Italy: Germany:
Revolutionaries: Mazzini, Cavour, Garibaldi Victor Emmanuel rules conquered areas Problems: economic differences between rich north & poor south Heavy Debt Germany: Prussian leadership: William I, Otto von Bismarck – realpolitik, Blood & iron War with Denmark War with Austria War with France Declaration of the German Empire Reaction: Austria-Hungary unite – Dual Monarchy

63 France: England: Russia: Nicholas II Germany: The Paris Commune 1871
The Dreyfus Affair Emile Zola – J’Accuse! England: William Gladstone & Benjamin Disraeli The Irish question Russia: Nicholas II Bloody Sunday Revolution of 1905 October Manifesto Bolsheviks & Mensheviks Germany: William II

64 FRQ Explain how anti-Semitism developed, despite advancements made by Western European Jews following the French Revolution. Describe the steps taken by feminists in the late 19th century & early 20th century. What issues did they tackle & what was the outcome? Were they successful in their causes?

65 Unit 3 Chapters 11-15

66 Imperialism Old: New: Only Liberia & Ethiopia remained independent
16th & 17th centuries Dutch, Spanish, English, & French colonialism Coastal Africa, Indian, Indonesia, & the Americas New: Beginning in the 1870s Direct economic & political control over Africa & Asia Scramble for Africa, Berlin Conference British Raj in India Only Liberia & Ethiopia remained independent

67 Imperialism Motives: Consequences:
New sources of raw materials & new markets Power & prestige Social Darwinism Christian missionaries – “civilizing mission” Consequences: Damaged or destroyed native cultures Created global economy Intensified European rivalries

68 FRQ Analyze the causes & effects of the European Imperialism of the 19th century.

69 WWI March towards war: Reaction: Germany & the new Balance of Power
Britain & France out produced by German industry Sharp increase in German population Bismarck’s network of Alliances: Austria-Hungary & Italy (Triple Alliance) & 1887 treaty with Russia William II – “One master of the Reich” Reaction: 1894 Franco-Russian Alliance Britain abandons “splendid isolation” policy Formation of the Triple Entente

70 WWI Balkan Powder Keg: Spark: Ottoman’s power decreases
Nationalism rising Pan-Slavism (with Russian support) 1908 Austria-Hungary annexes Bosnia & Herzegovina Spark: June 28, 1914 Gavrilo Princip assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand in Sarajevo Germany’s “Blank Check” to Austria-Hungary

71 WWI Aspects of war Russian Revolution The Schlieffen Plan
Stalemate (Trench Warfare) War Technologies Total War The role of Women All Quiet On The Western Front Russian Revolution End of Romanov Rule The Provisional Government Lenin & the Bolshevik Revolution The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk Civil War

72 WWI The Peace Settlement The Paris Peace Conference
American intervention William II abdicates Armistice Wilson’s 14 Points The Paris Peace Conference The Treaty of Versailles German War Guilt Germany loses 13% of its land German territories in Africa & the Pacific mandated to Britain, France, & Japan Poland gains independence German army limited to 100K, no war industry allowed Demilitarization of the Rhine

73 WWI New Map of Europe The Paris Peace Conference
Austria-Hungary dissolved, Hapsburg monarchy eliminated Creation of Czechoslovakia & Yugoslavia Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania emerged Elimination of Monarchies in Austria-Hungary, Germany, & Russia The Paris Peace Conference Created the League of Nations Created a legacy of bitterness between both the victors & the defeated

74 FRQ The AP Euro test devotes few questions to the extreme details of the events that led to the outbreak of WWI. Spend the majority of time studying the consequences of the war for the countries involved. Lenin’s pivotal role in the Russian Revolution has generated a significant number of MC questions. Be sure to study Lenin’s key ideas. Often, comparisons will be made between Lenin’s power & leadership with the weakness of Tsar Nicholas II & Alexander Kerensky.

75 Unit 4 Chapters 16 & 17

76 Impact of WWI Caused unprecedented death & destruction
Overthrew established monarchies & social orders Led many people to question the optimistic belief in reason, progress, & individual rights Uncertainties: Widespread feeling of disillusionment, uncertainty, & anxiety New doubts about the ability of individuals to control their lives An intellectual crisis that affected every field of thought

77 Modern Philosophy Friedrich Nietzsche – 1844-1900 Existentialism:
Expressed contempt for middle-class morality Saying that it led to a false & shallow existence Argued that conventional notions of good & evil are only relevant for the ordinary person Rejected reason & embraced the irrational Believed that the “will to power” of a few heroic “super men” could successfully restructure the world Existentialism: Reason & science are incapable of providing insight into the human condition God, reason, & progress are myths; humans live in a hostile world, alone & isolated A person is the sum of their actions & choices

78 Modern Philosophy Albert Einstein – 1879-1955
Theory of Relativity: E = mc2 Energy = mass x the square of the speed of light Energy & mass are interchangeable The foundation for the development of nuclear power Implications: The universe has few certainties Everything is “relevant” or dependent on the observers frame of reference Upsets the optimistic view that the universe was predictable & orderly

79 Modern Philosophy Sigmund Freud – 1856-1939
Believed the human psyche includes three distinct parts: id, superego, & the ego Id: inborn sexual & aggressive urges Superego: acts as a conscience seeking to repress the id. Drives desires into the subconscious, which is irrational & recognizes no ethical restrictions Ego: the center of reason. Attempts to find balance between the id & superego Freud’s theories: Undermined the Enlightenment’s belief in human rationalism Had significant influence on modern art & literature

80 Searching for International Order
Problems: Germany resented the Versailles Treaty’s harsh terms The United States rejected the Versailles Treaty & followed a policy of isolation France was determined to enforce the Versailles Treaty & make Germany pay war reparations Communist Russia remained outside the international system

81 Germany: the Weimar Republic
Reparations: 30 billion dollars Proposed a 3 year moratorium on payments; France occupied the Ruhr Valley Inflation: Hyperinflation Printed vast amounts of paper money By 1923, one dollar was worth 4 trillion German marks Inflation destroyed savings & incomes of German middle class Felt betrayed by their government, would later be susceptible to Nazi propaganda

82 The Kellogg-Briand Pact-1928
Hope for Peace: The Dawes Plan-1923 American plan to reestablish a sound German currency & reduce reparations The Locarno Pact-1925 France, Germany, England, Italy, & Belgium sign; guarantees national borders The Kellogg-Briand Pact-1928 62 countries promised “to renounce war as an instrument of national policy”

83 Conservative Authoritarianism
Committed to existing social order Opposed popular participation in government Totalitarianism Total control over the lives of citizens Used modern technology & communication to manipulate & censor information Used education to mold loyal citizens & demonize scapegoats & enemies

84 Forms of Totalitarianism
Fascism: Led by one leader or party Condemned democracy Rival parties undermines national unity Supported state sponsored capitalism Glorified war & aggressive nationalism Exercised control over the media

85 Forms of Totalitarianism
Soviet Communism: Led by one party: the dictatorship of the proletariat Condemned capitalism It exploits the workers Supported state ownership of the means of production Glorified the working class Exercised control over the media

86 The NEP (New Economic Policy) revived Russia’s economy
Soviet Union Lenin: The NEP (New Economic Policy) revived Russia’s economy Lenin dies in 1924 Stalin vs Trotsky By 1928, Stalin was USSRs undisputed leader Stalin: Five Year Plans The Great Terror (purges)

87 Fascist Italy Postwar Italy: Benito Mussolini
Betrayal by Treaty of Versailles Severe economic crisis: inflation, unemployment, massive national debt Fear of Bolshevik influence & revolt Benito Mussolini 1922 March on Rome Fascist State State Corporate Economy The Lateran Accord: independence for Vatican City

88 Hitler was a spellbinding demagogue Nazi ideology:
Nazi Germany Adolf Hitler Weakness of Weimer Republic helped prepare German public for a bold leader Nazis used political process to legally claim power Hitler was a spellbinding demagogue Nazi ideology: Nationalism German Master Race Anticommunist, anti-Semitic

89 Chamberlain: “Peace in our time” August 1939 Nazi-Soviet Pact
Spanish Civil War The Munich Conference 1938 Chamberlain: “Peace in our time” August 1939 Nazi-Soviet Pact September 1, 1939 – German invasion of Poland Holocaust - factors Jews were a small & vulnerable minority Hitler’s propaganda convinced Germans of Jewish inferiority German secret police successful at stifling dissent

90 Revival of Western Europe Treaty of Rome 1957
Cold War Containment Truman Doctrine The Marshall Plan NATO Alliance The Warsaw Pact The Berlin Airlift Revival of Western Europe Treaty of Rome 1957 The European Economic Community Eliminated trade barriers

91 Cold War Stalin dies 1953 Khrushchev De-Stalinization 1957 Sputnik 1961 The Berlin Wall 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis Brezhnev Stagnation Richard Nixon & détente The Helsinki Accords 1975

92 Collapse of the Soviet Union The Maastricht Treaty
End of the Cold War Gorbachev Glasnost Perestroika Demokratizatsiya Poland & Solidarity Fall of the Berlin Wall 1989 Collapse of the Soviet Union The Maastricht Treaty Created the EU & European Central Bank

93 FRQ Analyze the effects of glasnost & perestroika during Mikhail Gorbachev’s presidency in the Soviet Union. To what extent did the Solidarity movement in Poland help bring about the fall of communism & the Soviet Union?

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