Presentation on theme: "Central European Monarchs Clash Chapter 21, Section 3."— Presentation transcript:
Central European Monarchs Clash Chapter 21, Section 3
Essential Questions: Why/How did absolute monarchs rise to power in Austria and the Germanic state of Prussia? Why/How did absolute monarchs rise to power in Austria and the Germanic state of Prussia? What were the causes and effects of the Thirty Years’ War? What were the causes and effects of the Thirty Years’ War? How did European power shift as a result of conflicts like the War of Austrian Succession and the Seven Years’ War? How did European power shift as a result of conflicts like the War of Austrian Succession and the Seven Years’ War?
The Thirty Years’ War Rising Tension Rising Tension –Tension rises between Lutherans and Catholics in central Europe Bohemian Protestants Revolt Bohemian Protestants Revolt –In 1618, Protestants revolt against Catholic Hapsburg rulers (Ferdinand II) –Results in Thirty Years’ War— a conflict over religion, land, power
Thirty Years’ War (continued) Hapsburg Triumphs (sometimes spelled “Habsburg”) Hapsburg Triumphs (sometimes spelled “Habsburg”) –From 1618 to 1630, Hapsburg armies have many victories –Troops plunder many German villages
Current Flag & Coat of Arms of Austria civil flag of Austria coat of arms of Austria
State and War Flag of Austria A combination of the civil flag and the coat of arms of Austria.
Thirty Years’ War (continued) Hapsburg Defeats Hapsburg Defeats –In 1630, tide turns in favor of Protestants with the entrance of Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden. Habsburg armies were driven out of northern Germany –By 1635, the Thirty Years’ War is less Catholic vs. Protestant and more Catholic vs. Catholic Remember Cardinals Richelieu and Mazarin of France? Remember Cardinals Richelieu and Mazarin of France? –They began to fear growing Habsburg power more than Protestants, so they sent French (Catholic) troops to join the German and Swedish Protestants in their struggle against the Habsburg armies
End of the Thirty Years’ War Important consequences: Important consequences: –War ruins German economy, greatly decreases population (from about 20 million to 16 million) –Took a long time for Germany to recover from the devastation; one of the reasons it takes so long for it to become a unified country (1871) Peace of Westphalia (1648) ends the war –Treaty recognizes Europe as group of independent states –Treaty weakens Hapsburgs, strengthens France –Ended the religious wars of Europe –Treaty introduces idea of negotiating terms of peace Beginning of Modern States- the idea of a united Catholic European empire is abandoned Beginning of Modern States- the idea of a united Catholic European empire is abandoned
States Form in Central Europe Economic Contrasts with the West Economic Contrasts with the West –Economy in central Europe still based in serfs and agriculture, strictly controlled by the landowning nobility (unlike western Europe, where cities/towns became centers of commerce and you see a growing middle class. Several Weak Empires Several Weak Empires –Landowning nobles in central Europe block growth of kings’ power. –Ottoman and Holy Roman Empires are also weak.
Rise of Austrian Empire Austria Grows Stronger Austria Grows Stronger –Hapsburgs in Austria take more lands, rule large empire –Difficult to rule, however, because there were many different ethnic groups within the empire Maria Theresa Inherits the Austrian Throne Maria Theresa Inherits the Austrian Throne –Emperor Charles VI worked hard to see that his daughter inherited his throne (Pragmatic Sanction) –Maria Theresa becomes empress of Austria but faces years of war.
The Pragmatic Sanction This document, The Pragmatic Sanction, declared that Maria Theresa would inherit the Austrian throne.
Maria Theresa of Austria -Known for her famous daughter, Marie Antoinette -Decreased the power of the nobility -Worked to help the serfs
Prussia Challenges Austria The Rise of Prussia The Rise of Prussia –Hohenzollern rulers of Prussia build Europe’s best army –They call themselves kings and become absolute monarchs. –Frederick William introduces permanent taxation –Prussian nobles (the Junkers) resist royal power, but king buys their loyalty- they get the exclusive right to be officers in the army. Frederick the Great Frederick the Great –Frederick the Great becomes king of Prussia –Enforces father’s military policies but softens some of his laws.
Frederick II (The Great) of Prussia. He was nicknamed “Old Fritz”.
What makes Frederick so Great? He encouraged religious toleration and legal reform He encouraged religious toleration and legal reform He believed a ruler should be like a father to his people He believed a ruler should be like a father to his people We refer to him as an “enlightened despot” We refer to him as an “enlightened despot”
Prussia Challenges Austria War of Austrian Succession War of Austrian Succession –In 1740, Frederick starts war against Austria to gain Silesia (which was rich in iron ore, textiles and food products). –Maria Theresa resists Prussian power but loses Silesia in treaty. –As a result of the war, Prussia becomes a major power in Europe.
Prussia Challenges Austria The Seven Years’ War The Seven Years’ War –Austria allies with France against Britain and Prussia –In 1756, Frederick attacks Saxony, launching Seven Years’ War (called the French and Indian War in America). –France loses colonies in North America, Britain gains India. –No real territorial changes in Europe as a result of the war