Presentation on theme: "Warm Up #12 Please answer in complete sentences! Why was “The Anarchy” in England important? Who were the gypsies?"— Presentation transcript:
Warm Up #12 Please answer in complete sentences! Why was “The Anarchy” in England important? Who were the gypsies?
European History: 1121- 1212 AD Part Deux! The Greatest Knight who ever lived, Saladin, Mr. Morrow’s least favorite person ever & The Lionheart
Key Terms Add these to the front of your notes, next to yesterday’s key terms William Marshal Saladin Prester John Guy de Lusignan Horns of Hattin Richard Lionheart King John Children’s Crusade
I was so excited to learn about gypsies that I forgot to listen to anything else! Henry I died without a son, so his nephew Stephen was crowned king, but his daughter Matilda started a civil war to gain the right to rule England. Eleanor of Aquitaine and Anna Comnena were to chicks who contributed greatly to life in the middle ages. The second crusade ended with a failed seige of Damascus in Syria.
1163 AD The Almohads finish driving the Normans out of North Africa.
1167 AD William Marshal, described as "the greatest knight that ever lived," is knighted in England.
1171 AD Saladin abolishes the Fatimid caliphate, restoring Sunni rule in Egypt. Henry II of England invades Ireland with the aid of the ousted King of Leinster, Diarmait MacMurrough. This begins eight centuries of conflict between Ireland and England.
1174 AD Saladin captures Damascus. Baldwin IV, 13, becomes King of Jerusalem, with Raymond III of Tripoli as regent and William of Tyre as chancellor.
1177 AD Pope Alexander III sends a letter to Prester John, believing he is real.
1183 AD Saladin conquers Syria and becomes sultan.
1186 AD After the death of the child-king Baldwin V, his mother succeeds him as Sibylla of Jerusalem and appoints her disfavoured husband Guy de Lusignan king consort.
1187 AD Battle of Hattin: Saladin defeats Guy of Lusignan, King of Jerusalem. Siege of Jerusalem: Saladin captures Jerusalem. Pope Urban III dies of heart attack on hearing news of the Loss of Jerusalem. Pope Gregory VIII issues the bull Audita tremendi, proposing the Third Crusade.
1189 AD Richard Lionheart is crowned as king of England. He immediately begins selling castles, lordships, privileges, and towns to fund his long-anticipated crusade against the Middle East.
1190 AD Frederick I Barbarossa drowns in the Saleph River while leading an army to Jerusalem. The Teutonic Knights are founded to defend the Latin states in the Levant. Richard I of England and Philip II of France meet at Vézelay, thus beginning the Third Crusade.
1191 AD Saladin's garrison surrenders, ending the two-year siege of Acre. Conrad of Montferrat, who has negotiated the surrender, raises the banners of the Kingdom of Jerusalem and of the Third Crusade leaders Richard I of England, Philip II of France, and Leopold V of Austria on the city's walls and towers. Richard stays to push on to Jerusalem, but Philip returns to France to take possession of a part of Flanders whose count had died at the siege of Acre. Back in France, Philip also schemes with Richard's brother, John of England, to dispossess Richard of his French lands while he is still away, but the intervention of John's (and Richard's) mother, Eleanor of Aquitaine, foils the plan. The first reference to the windmill in Europe is made by a Dean Herbert of East Anglia.
1192 AD Conrad of Montferrat (Conrad I), King of Jerusalem, is assassinated in Tyre, only days after his title to the throne is confirmed by election. The killing is carried out by Hashshashin. The Third Crusade ends. Richard I of England and Saladin negotiate visiting rights for pilgrims to come to the Holy City of Jerusalem. Richard I of England is taken hostage by Leopold V of Austria.
1193 AD Pope Celestine III calls for a crusade against pagans in Northern Europe.
1194 AD Richard I of England is ransomed from Henry VI, Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire. After settling affairs in England, Richard arrives across the Channel at Barfleur in Normandy to reclaim lands lost to Philip II.
1199 AD King Richard I of England is shot in the left shoulder with a crossbow by French boy Pierre Basile at the siege of the castle of Châlus in France. King Richard I of England dies from gangrene caused by his crossbow wound. His younger brother, John, becomes King of England.
1201 AD Boniface of Montferrat is elected leader of the Fourth Crusade, after the death of Theobald III of Champagne.
1203 AD The troops of the Fourth Crusade reach the Byzantine heartland: June 23 – The Fleet of the crusaders enters the Bosphorus. July 17 – The armies of the Fourth Crusade capture Constantinople by assault; the Byzantine emperor Alexius III flees from his capital into exile.
1208 AD Pope Innocent III places England under an interdict as punishment for King John of England rejecting his choice for Archbishop of Canterbury. Under the interdict, Church sacraments including marriage and consecrated burial are probably stopped.
1209 AD John of England is excommunicated by Pope Innocent III. The Franciscan Order is founded.
1210 AD Otto IV, Holy Roman Emperor is excommunicated by Pope Innocent III for invading southern Italy.
1212 AD The Children's Crusade for the Holy Land is organised. There are probably two separate movements of young people, both led by shepherd boys, neither of which embark from Europe, but both of which suffer considerable hardship
Homework Your Chivalric Poem is due tomorrow (Thu 1/24). Let’s review what is expected….