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The Crusades in Medieval Europe

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1 The Crusades in Medieval Europe
For nearly 200 years, the Christians fought a series of religious wars known as the Crusades.

2 Before the Crusades Muslims allowed Christian pilgrims to Jerusalem because it brought new sources of revenue. Christian pilgrimages were a way of being forgiven for your sins. Violence is ripping apart Europe as Nobles are fighting among themselves. Famine beginning to spread across the Continent as mini ice age slows crop production

3 Seljuk Turks Suddenly, in 1071 AD, a group of Muslims called Seljuk Turks, stopped allowing Christian visitors to come into Jerusalem. Persecuted Christians who were there. Violence escalates and 3000 Christians are massacred

4 A letter that started a war!
With the massacre Byzantine Emperor Alexis sends a letter to Pope Urban II asking for help… he will regret this later. Don’t Worry. I will send and army Help us Urban – you are our only hope

5 Council of Clermont 1095 Pope made a speech in France urging the Western Christendom to rescue the Holy Land and the Christians in the East from the Turks. Pope Urban’s speech at the Council of Clermont was very inspiring and persuasive as tens of thousands enthusiastically took up the cross and departed to the Holy Land in 1096. He promised that God would grant them a full remission of their sins if they died while on crusade.

6 Speech that started the war!
“You common people who have been miserable sinners, become soldiers of Christ! You nobles, do not [quarrel] with one another. Use your arms in a just war! Labor for everlasting reward.”

7 Causes of the Crusades Seljuk Turks invade Jerusalem
Regain Control of the “Holy Land” Turks Kill 3000 Christians Causes of the Crusades European nobles fighting among themselves Merchants & Pope want Trade Routes

8 The First Crusade - 1096 - 1099 An attempt to re-capture Jerusalem.
Unskilled peasants and knights Unprepared for trip & fighting due to climate, lack of supplies, and no leader. Success: Siege of Jerusalem = 1099, Victory for Crusaders A Crusader knight

9 The Second Crusade -1147-1149 Muslims began retaking lands
1144, Took city of Edessa, European leaders called for Second Crusade, launched in 1147 Second Crusade a failure, took no lands from Muslims The council at Jerusalem decides to attack Damascus

10 Third Crusade 1177, Saladin arose as Leader in Muslim world, took title of sultan Retook Crusader states, drove Christians out of Jerusalem Three Kings Richard, Philip, Frederick set out on Third Crusade Frederick (H.R.E.)Drowned, Philip (Fr) quarreled with Richard (Eng), returned home Only King Richard the Lion-Hearted of England fought in Holy Land

11 3rd Crusade – Mutual Respect
Richard, Saladin admired each other as military leaders, gentlemen Made proposals for peace, including marriage alliance of Richard’s sister, Saladin’s brother; never took place because of religious differences Fierce Fighting Richard was unable to drive Muslims from Holy Land Richard could not take Jerusalem, had to return to England

12 Fourth Crusade -1202-1204 Failure of 4th Crusade
Innocent III, called French Knights for a 4th Crusade Plan was to sail to Jerusalem from Venice, Italy The Venetians agreed to furnish necessary ships only if Crusaders first seized Zara, a Christian city. Pope angered that Christian city attacked, excommunicated all The Venetians then persuaded the Crusaders to attack Christian city of Constantinople Failure of 4th Crusade Disorganization, lack of leadership Going against Pope

13 Later Crusades Five other Crusades followed, none successful
Children's Crusade: 1212 factual and mythical period including a French or German boy, an intention to peacefully convert Muslims in the Holy Land to Christianity Fifth Crusade 1217–1221 A/H Army, Surrender Quickly Sixth Crusade 1228–1229 Emp. Fredrick II, Excomm Greg IX Diplomatic Success Seventh Crusade 1248–1254 Louis IX of France, Failed Eighth Crusade 1270 Louis IX, Died, Canonized Ninth Crusade 1271–1272 Edward I of England

14 Effects from Crusades Economic Changes Political Changes
Crusades enhanced existing trade; Europe & Middle East Returning Crusaders brought more goods, spices, textiles, to Europe Political Changes Crusades led to deaths of knights & nobles Lands vulnerable Ambitious nobles took unoccupied lands Nobles & Kings increase power, influence in Europe Social Changes Many viewed non-Christians as enemies, persecuted Jews Jews saw Crusaders as cruel invaders Relations strained

15 Works Cited Images are cited on each slide.

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