Presentation on theme: "The Crusades in Medieval Europe"— Presentation transcript:
1 The Crusades in Medieval Europe For nearly 200 years, the Christians fought a series of religious wars known as the Crusades.
2 Before the CrusadesMuslims allowed Christian pilgrims to Jerusalem because it brought new sources of revenue.Christian pilgrimages were a way of being forgiven for your sins.Violence is ripping apart Europe as Nobles are fighting among themselves.Famine beginning to spread across the Continent as mini ice age slows crop production
3 Seljuk TurksSuddenly, in 1071 AD, a group of Muslims called Seljuk Turks, stopped allowing Christian visitors to come into Jerusalem.Persecuted Christians who were there.Violence escalates and 3000 Christians are massacred
4 A letter that started a war! With the massacre Byzantine Emperor Alexis sends a letter to Pope Urban II asking for help… he will regret this later.Don’t Worry. I will send and armyHelp us Urban – you are our only hope
5 Council of Clermont1095 Pope made a speech in France urging the Western Christendom to rescue the Holy Land and the Christians in the East from the Turks.Pope Urban’s speech at the Council of Clermont was very inspiring and persuasive as tens of thousands enthusiastically took up the cross and departed to the Holy Land in 1096.He promised that God would grant them a full remission of their sins if they died while on crusade.
6 Speech that started the war! “You common people who have been miserable sinners, become soldiers of Christ! You nobles, do not [quarrel] with one another. Use your arms in a just war! Labor for everlasting reward.”
7 Causes of the Crusades Seljuk Turks invade Jerusalem Regain Control of the “Holy Land”Turks Kill 3000 ChristiansCauses of the CrusadesEuropean nobles fighting among themselvesMerchants & Pope want Trade Routes
8 The First Crusade - 1096 - 1099 An attempt to re-capture Jerusalem. Unskilled peasants and knightsUnprepared for trip & fighting due to climate, lack of supplies, and no leader.Success: Siege of Jerusalem = 1099, Victory for CrusadersA Crusader knight
9 The Second Crusade -1147-1149 Muslims began retaking lands 1144, Took city of Edessa, European leaders called for Second Crusade, launched in 1147Second Crusade a failure, took no lands from MuslimsThe council at Jerusalem decides to attack Damascus
10 Third Crusade1177, Saladin arose as Leader in Muslim world, took title of sultanRetook Crusader states, drove Christians out of JerusalemThree KingsRichard, Philip, Frederick set out on Third CrusadeFrederick (H.R.E.)Drowned, Philip (Fr) quarreled with Richard (Eng), returned homeOnly King Richard the Lion-Hearted of England fought in Holy Land
11 3rd Crusade – Mutual Respect Richard, Saladin admired each other as military leaders, gentlemenMade proposals for peace, including marriage alliance of Richard’s sister, Saladin’s brother; never took place because of religious differencesFierce FightingRichard was unable to drive Muslims from Holy LandRichard could not take Jerusalem, had to return to England
12 Fourth Crusade -1202-1204 Failure of 4th Crusade Innocent III, called French Knights for a 4th CrusadePlan was to sail to Jerusalem from Venice, ItalyThe Venetians agreed to furnish necessary ships only if Crusaders first seized Zara, a Christian city.Pope angered that Christian city attacked, excommunicated allThe Venetians then persuaded the Crusaders to attack Christian city of ConstantinopleFailure of 4th CrusadeDisorganization,lack of leadershipGoing against Pope
13 Later Crusades Five other Crusades followed, none successful Children's Crusade: 1212factual and mythical period including a French or German boy, an intention to peacefully convert Muslims in the Holy Land to ChristianityFifth Crusade 1217–1221A/H Army, Surrender QuicklySixth Crusade 1228–1229Emp. Fredrick II, Excomm Greg IXDiplomatic SuccessSeventh Crusade 1248–1254Louis IX of France, FailedEighth Crusade 1270Louis IX, Died, CanonizedNinth Crusade 1271–1272Edward I of England
14 Effects from Crusades Economic Changes Political Changes Crusades enhanced existing trade; Europe & Middle EastReturning Crusaders brought more goods, spices, textiles, to EuropePolitical ChangesCrusades led to deaths of knights & noblesLands vulnerableAmbitious nobles took unoccupied landsNobles & Kings increase power, influence in EuropeSocial ChangesMany viewed non-Christians as enemies,persecuted JewsJews saw Crusaders as cruel invadersRelations strained