2 Trouble Ahead: The Emperor vs. the Pope Began with crowning of CharlemagneOtto I united Germany and part of Italy into Holy Roman Empire (900’s-1100’s)Church was not happy with:German power over ItalyUse of lay investiture: ceremony in which kings and noble appointed church officialsUse of simony: the selling of positions in the church1075: Pope Gregory VII banned lay investiture
3 Henry IV vs. Pope Gregory VII After Gregory banned lay investiture, Henry ordered him to step downGregory then excommunicated HenryHenry went to Canossa in January 1077 and stood barefoot in the snow for three days to beg Gregory’s forgivenessThe showdown didn’t solve anything1122: Concordat of Worms: compromise saying Church could appoint Bishops but emperor could veto
4 ReformChurch was reorganized to resemble a kingdom with pope at the topChurch enforced laws against simony and marriage of priestsPope Gregory VII
5 New Religious Orders Dominicans Franciscans Benedictines Importance of helping poor and sickThese orders included women and menSaint Francis of Assisi
6 Cathedrals Gothic- new style of architecture during Middle Ages Stained glass windows often told stories for illiterate peasantsChartres (Cathedral of Notre-Dame)
7 Warm UpWhat were the three main problems that the Church wanted to reform?
8 AnswersLay investiture- process of nobles and kings appointing church officialsSimony- selling church positionsMarriage of priests- this was against the beliefs of the Church
9 CrusadesPope Urban II issued a call for the Crusades (holy war) to gain control of the Holy LandGoals of CrusadesReclaim Holy Land and reunite ChristendomKeep arguing knights busyYounger sons who did not inherit property could gain position in society, adventure, or richesMerchants loaned money to finance the Crusades
10 First Crusade Large outpouring of support from all Christians Knights were ill-prepared and argued over a leaderCaptured Jerusalem and won narrow strip of land
11 Second Crusade To win back Edessa from the Turks European army was defeatedJerusalem was taken by Saladin, a Kurdish leader
12 Third Crusade Philip II of France argued with Richard and went home Frederick I drowned on the journeyRichard the Lionhearted battled with Saladin and eventually agreed to a truce
13 Crusading Spirit Dwindles In 1204 the Fourth Crusade to recapture Jerusalem fails because knights are too busy looting ConstantinopleChildren’s Crusade: In two separate movements, 50,000 children died from cold, starvation, or drowning or were sold into slavery
14 Spanish CrusadeReconquista: effort of Spanish to drive Muslim Moors out of SpainSucceeded under Isabella and Ferdinand in late 1400’s.
15 Isabella and Ferdinand used the Inquisition (Court held by Church to suppress heretics) to unify country and increase powerMany Muslims and Jews converted but were still tried for heresy and burned at the stake
16 Effects of CrusadesIncreased trading between Europe and Southwest AsiaRole of women expanded to run estates or businesses after men left for warPower of Pope lessenedPower of feudal lords lessened and power of kings increasedPersecution of Muslims and Jews caused legacy of hatred and bitternessEnergy of Crusades also led to expansion of trade, towns, and universities across medieval Europe