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The Crusades Part II The 2 nd, 3 rd and 4 th Crusades.

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Presentation on theme: "The Crusades Part II The 2 nd, 3 rd and 4 th Crusades."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Crusades Part II The 2 nd, 3 rd and 4 th Crusades

2 The Crusader Kingdoms

3 The Second Crusade 1146  Nuredin had reconquered 2 Christian Kingdoms in the Holy Land (Edessa and Antioch)  The Templars were formed in around 1118 to protect the new possessions and escort pilgrims  Poor planning and disagreements among the leaders led to failure of the crusade

4 The 3 rd Crusade 1189-1192  Called by Pope Gregory VIII  Rationale: Saladin had recaptured Jerusalem in 1187 after defeating the Christian Army at the Battle of Hattin

5 The call of the 3 rd Crusade  Pope Gregory VIII convinces The HRE Frederick Barbarossa (c. 63 years old) to lead the Crusade  Phillip II Augustus (25) of France and Richard I (32) of England reluctantly agree to join the crusade  Depart in 1189  All of Western Europe forced to pay the Saladin tax (10%)  Byzantine Emperor so weak he sided with Saladin

6 Results  Frederick died fording the Saleph river in Asia Minor  Germans embalmed his body and carried it to Antioch in a barrel  Richard captured Tyre, Acre and Jaffa  Richard slaughters 3,000 Muslim prisoners (Acre)  Phillip is disappointed in his lack of spoils and leaves the holy land sick and frustrated  By 1191 the two sides have reached a stalemate  Richard and Saladin reach an agreement  Richard leaves in 1192 and is shipwrecked on the way home. (Ransom)

7 The 4 th Crusade 1201-1204  Why the new route?  Holy Land and strike at Muslim power in Egypt

8 The leadership  Theobold of Champagne (most popular)  Boniface of Montferrat  Pope Innocent III  New concept of attacking from Egypt

9 The deal with Venice  1201 The crusaders struck a deal with the city state of Venice (Doge Enrico Dandalo) to carry them to the holy land  Ships and 9 months provisions for 4,500 knights and 29,000 squires and foot soldiers for 85,000 silver pieces  Maybe….a secret agreement to keep the crusade from reaching Egypt (they traded with Muslims there)

10 Problems  Theobold dies and Boniface is named the Crusade leader  Boniface more interested in Byzantium than Jerusalem  French Knights either chose not to go or left from France on foot  When the crusaders arrive at Venice they only have 10,000 people total (34,000 silver pieces short)

11 Solution  The Doge of Venice (Enrico Dandalo) offered a solution  The problem with Hungary and the island of Zara (Hungary is Roman Catholic)  Capture Zara and then are excommunicated by the Pope (later lifted)

12 Constantinople  Issac II Angelus and his son Alexius IV are ruling the Byzantine Empire  They are dethroned and thrown in jail by Issac’s brother Alexius III  Alexius IV escapes to his brother in law Phillip of Swabia  He can’t help but he may have sent him to the Pope, who then sent him to Zara

13 The 4 th Crusade resumes  Alexius IV tries to convince the crusaders to help restore him to the throne of Byzantium  Also promised 10,000 soldiers for the crusade, money for the Venetians, and to re- unite the Churches  He also promised to help pay the Venetians the money they were owed  Hatred and jealousy of the Byzantines may have fueled the attack as well

14 The Crusade in Byzantium 1203  After the first attack Alexius III flees  Issac II and Alexius IV are restored  However…the people of Constantinople killed them  Alexius V Ducas Murzuphulus is placed on the throne  On April 13 th 1204 the crusaders conquered the city (Alexius V fled)

15 Results of the Crusades  More contact with the East (better culture)  More trade made Italian city states very wealthy (the Renaissance)  advances in military tactics, castle building  Many powerful lords left Western Europe, opened the door for Kings to consolidate power  Strong nation states  Expansion East stopped (forced to look West)  Age of exploration  Popes gained political influence (maybe too much?)  Perhaps perceived as too worldly? (may have led to shift of State over Church)

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