The Crusades By Marco Storchi, Maureen Chudnovsky and Mariano Tortorelli
First Crusade (1095-1099) Third Crusade (1187-1192) Second Crusade (1147-1149) Fourth Crusade (1202-1204) Children’s Crusade (1212) Fifth Crusade (1217-1221) Sixth Crusade (1228-1229) Seventh Crusade (1248-1254) Ninth Crusade (1271-1272) Eighth Crusade (1270) What are The Crusades? Web SitesPICTURES
What are the Crusades? The Crusades were a series of military conflicts of a religious character waged by much of Christian Europe during 1095–1291, most of which were sanctioned by the Pope in the name of Christendom. The Crusades originally had the goal of recapturing Jerusalem and the sacred "Holy Land" from Muslim rule.
The First Crusade (1095-1099) At a meeting held in Clermont, France, Pope Urban II called for a crusade (holy war) to recapture the Holy Land from the MuslimS.
The Second Crusade (1147-1149) After a period of relative peace in which Christians and Muslims co- existed in the Holy Land. French and South German armies marched to Jerusalem in 1147 but failed to win any major victories. In the Holy Land by 1150, both kings returned to their countries without any result.
The Third Crusade (1187-1192) In 1187, Saladin, recaptured Jerusalem. Pope Gregory VIII called for a crusade, which was led by Philip II of France, Richard I of England and Frederick I. Richard did not believe he would be able to hold Jerusalem because Frederick had drowned and Philip had left. Richard left the following year after establishing a truce with Saladin.
The Fourth Crusade (1202-1204) It was initiated in 1202 by Pope Innocent III, with the intention of invading the Holy Land through Egypt. After a series of misunderstandings and outbreaks of violence, the crusaders sacked the city in 1204.
The Children’s Crusade (1212) It took place in 1212. The leader of the French army, Stephen, led 30,000 children. The leader of the German army, Nicholas, led 7,000 children. None of the children actually reached the Holy Land.
The Fifth Crusade (1217-1221) It took place in 1217, and was led by Andrew II of Hungary And Leopold VI of Austria. They captured the city of Damietta, but could not hold it for long. Leopold and Andrew were offered control of Jerusalem and other Christian sites in the Holy Land in exchange for the return Of Damietta to Muslim control. But Cardinal Pelagius refused the offer.
The Sixth Crusade (1228-1229) It was started by Pope Gregory IX. He nonetheless set sail From Brindisi, landed in Palestine, and through diplomacy he achieved unexpected success: Jerusalem, Nazareth, and Bethlehem were delivered to the crusaders for a period of ten years.
The Seventh Crusade (1248-1254) Louis IX of France organized a crusade against Egypt from 1248 to 1254. It was a failure, and Louis spent much of the crusade living at the court of the crusader kingdom in Acre. In the midst of this crusade was the first Shepherds‘ Crusade in 1251.
The Eighth Crusade (1270) It was started again by Louis IX in 1270. The crusade was diverted to Tunis, where Louis spent only two months before dying.
The Ninth Crusade (1271-1272) The Ninth Crusade was Led by King Edward I of England in 1271. It was an attempt to defeat the Mamluk sultan of Baibers. The crusade failed, and Edward returned home to England upon learning of the death of his father, Henry III.