Presentation on theme: "ryan henrici michelle squiteri peter searle"— Presentation transcript:
1ryan henrici michelle squiteri peter searle End of World War IIryan henricimichelle squiteripeter searle
2Table of Contents Conferences and End of the War V-E Day and Beginnings of the Cold WarNuremberg Trials and Creation of the UNDiscussion Questions
3Casablanca Conference of 1943 US (Pres. FDR), and GB (PM. Winston Churchill)Soviets (Stalin) did not attendHeld in MoroccoUnconditional SurrenderInsert a map of your country.Finalized Allied offensive attack strategy
4Casablanca Attack Strategy Allied staging areasuppliesbombingInsert a map of your country.Sicilyinvasion
5Cairo Conference of 1943 US (Pres. FDR), GB, China China officially joins AlliesReturn Japanese occupied territories post WWIIFDR wants to raise public confidence in ChinaPublic dislike and distrust ChinaEstablish China as one of the “Four Policemen” (US, GB, SU, CN)China to oversee peace in AsiaChina does not want to aid Burma offensiveBurma is an English colonyBoosted Chinese moraleInsert a picture of one of the geographic features of your country.
6Tehran Conference of 1943US (Pres. FDR) , GB, and Soviet UnionFinalized Operation OverlordOpened eastern front to relieve Red ArmyStalin agrees to declare war on JapanPost-War plansPolandSoviet Territory and PortsPlans for United Nations“Declaration of the Three Powers Regarding Iran”Promised aid to Iran post war in thanks for their wartime aidInsert a picture illustrating a season in your country.
7Yalta Conference of 1945US (Pres. FDR), GB, SUSoviets in the PacificRewards for Pacific AidSphere of Influence in ManchuriaPort ArthurKurile IslandsGermany takes responsibility for warFrance as a Security Council MemberPost-War governments should be friendlyInsert a picture of an animal and or plant found in your country.
8Potsdam Conference of 1945 US (Pres. Truman), GB, SU Negotiate Allied terms of surrenderDisagreement over reparationsSU wants heavyTruman wants to prevent a WWI outcomeDivide Germany into 4 demil. Allie-Occupied zonesAll Nuremberg Laws repealedGermany is remade DemocraticAll authoritarian influences eliminatedAdd key points in the history of your country to the timeline.
9Potsdam Conference of 1945 Redefinition of Poland Potsdam Declaration Large Germ territory goes to PolandWanted to prevent a mass German exodusPotsdam DeclarationUS SU cooperation declinesCold War RelationsAdd key points in the history of your country to the timeline.
10End of War Timeline 1943-1945 Battle of Tunis, May 7 Axis forces in N. Africa surrender, May 13Battle of Kursk, July 4- Aug 1Allies land at Sicily, July 10Italians Secretly Surrender Sept 3Allies Land at Salerno July 19Allies land at Anzio Jan 22Allies invade Normandy June 6 (D-Day)Soviets push Germans into Poland, mid-JulyParis liberated Aug 25Polish resistance revolts against Germans in Warsaw Aug-OctBattle of the Bulge, Dec 16- Feb7 (Last Sig. Germ offensive)Yalta Conference Feb 4-11Soviets launch attack on Berlin April 16Hitler commits suicide Apr 30Germany surrenders-, WWII in Europe ends May 7
11Table of Contents Conferences and End of the War V-E Day and Beginnings of the Cold WarNuremberg Trials and Creation of the UNDiscussion Questions
13The Basics “Victory In Europe Day” May 8, 1945 World War II Allies accepted the unconditional surrender of the armed forces of Nazi GermanyMarked the end of Adolf Hitler's Third Reich
14Allies Take ControlBy January of 1945, the Soviet Army had reached the Oder river outside Berlin and Allies pushed into ItalyApril 1945, Mussolini tried to flee to Switzerland but was captured and executedAmerican and British troops had now crossed the Rhine River into Germany and In April, a U.S army reached the Elbe River, 50 miles West of Berlin.Allied forces now prepared for an all out offensive to take Hitler’s capital, Berlin
15The SurrenderHitler had finally become aware he was going to be defeated, shaken by tremors and drugs, he gave his last useless ordersOn 30 April Hitler and a few of his closest associates committed suicide during the Battle of BerlinHis plan for the “Thousand Year Reich only lasted a dozen yearsOn May 7, Germany surrendered in a little French school house which served as Eisenhower’s headquarters
16The SurrenderThe act of military surrender was signed on May 7th in Reims, France and May 8th in Berlin, Germany.The surrender of Germany was authorized by his replacement, President of Germany Karl Dönitz.The administration headed up by Dönitz was known as the Flensburg government.
17Post Victory & Celebration More than a million people celebrated in the streets to mark the end of the European part of the war.In London, crowds massed in Trafalgar Square and up The Mall to Buckingham Palace, where King George VI and Queen Elizabeth, accompanied by Prime Minister Winston Churchill, appeared on the balcony of the Palace before cheering crowds.In the United States, President Harry Truman, who turned 61 that day, dedicated the victory to the memory of his predecessor, Franklin D. Roosevelt, who had died less than a month earlier, on April 12.
18Post Victory & Celebration Flags remained at half-staff for the remainder of the 30-day mourning period, which ended on May 12. Massive celebrations also took place in Chicago, Los Angeles, Miami, and especially in New York City's Times SquareMany hardships remained, however, including continued rationing of food and clothing, which lasted even longer in peacetime than it had during the war.
19US and Soviet Differences & Beginning of the Cold War
20US and SU DifferencesUS relations with the Soviet Union after the war were beginning to break downThey had only been united in their opposition to Nazi Germany during the warThe United States was a capitalist Democracy, its citizens believed in free elections, economic and religious freedoms, private property, and respect for individual differencesOn the other hand, the Soviet Union was a DictatorshipUnder Joseph Stalin, the communist Party made all key economic, political, and military decisions
21DisagreementFollowing the Yalta Conference, it was unclear as to how Germany and the Nations of Eastern Europe would be governed after the warStalin wanted to keep Germany weak and divided and Europe to remain under the control of the Soviet UnionThe United States sought a stronger and united Germany and independent nations in Eastern Europe
22DisagreementStalin agreed to establish broadly representative governments and free elections in Eastern Europe and divide Germany only temporarily into zones of occupationDespite this agreement, nearly all the lands occupied by the Soviet Red Army in 1945 remained under Soviet control after the warPoland, Czech, Hungary, Romania, and Bulgaria as well as Eastern Germany became Satellite States of the Soviet Union
23Truman & Stalin ClashStalin refused to make a commitment to allow free elections in Eastern EuropeThis angered Truman and led him to believe that the Soviet Union was planning world conquestAlliance was quickly falling apartWith Stalin and the enormous Red Army in power, The US began to view the Soviet Union as a real threat and a rivalry began to brew
24Cold War Begins The next 46 years were Known as the Cold War Great Britain was on the US side and Churchill proposed that an “Iron Curtain” had descended across the ContinentEast of it, The SU was gaining power and control by installing communist Gov. and crushing political and religious dissent, and that the Su was going to attempt to spread communism
25Truman DoctrineMarch 12, 1947 President Truman asked Congress for money to support free people (Greece and Turkey) who were resisting attempted conquest by armed minorites or outside pressureCongress responded by giving $400 million in aid for Greece and TurkeyThis promise from Truman to aid nations struggling against Communist movements was known as the Truman Doctrine
26Containing Soviet Expansion George F. Kennan, an American diplomat published an article called “The Sources of Soviet Conduct” in which he introduced the idea of containmentThe goal of containment was to keep communism contained within its existing bordersThe Americans believed that Stalin would not risk starting an all out war with the US just to spread his communism
27Marshall PlanIn Western Europe after WWII, people did not have food, fuel, and medical supplies, as well as the cold wintersSecretary of State, George Marshall unveiled a recovery plan for EuropeEarly 1948, Congress approved the Marshall Plan, in which over the next 4 years the US gave $13 billion in grants and loans to Western EuropeBy helping and offering to help these countries, it helped the US increase in foreign trade and most importantly helped join powers to work against the expansion of communism
28Table of Contents Conferences and End of the War V-E Day and Beginnings of the Cold WarNuremberg Trials and Creation of the UNDiscussion Questions
29Insert a picture illustrating a custom or tradition here. The Nuremberg Trials
30The Nuremberg Trials"The wrongs we seek to condemn and punish have been so calculated so malignant and so devastating that civilization can not tolerate their being ignored, because it can not survive their being repeated." ~Robert Jackson Chief United States Prosecutor The Nuremberg Trials&Supreme Court Justice
31What is The Nuremberg Trials? The Nuremberg Trials is when Twenty-four major political and military leaders of Nazi Germany, indicated for aggressive war, war crimes, and crimes against humanity, were brought to trial before the International Military Tribunal. The trials were held in Nuremberg, Germany and lasted from
32Chief Prosecutors of The Nuremberg Trials Robert Jackson- A Supreme Court Justice in the United States of AmericaLord Hartley Shawcross- A British barrister and politicianGeneral R. A. Rudenko- A Soviet Union lawyer
33Chief Prosecutors of The Nuremberg Trials François de Menthon- A French Politician and Professor of LawAuguste Champetier de Ribes- A French Politician and Jurist
34The Twenty-four MenThe Trials began on October 18th 1945 and ended in October of 1946 here is the outcomeOf the 24 indicted Nazi leaders, 22 were tried at The Nuremburg TrialsOnly 22 were tried due to Robert Ley’s suicide and Gustav Krupp stood down due to illness3 of the 22 defendants were acquitted19 were found guilty3 were sentenced to life in prison4 were sentence to years of prison12 were sentenced to death