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Chapter 25 Section 1 Roots of the Cold War Examine how friendships among the Allies broke down after the war. Discover how the United States tried to limit.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 25 Section 1 Roots of the Cold War Examine how friendships among the Allies broke down after the war. Discover how the United States tried to limit."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 25 Section 1 Roots of the Cold War Examine how friendships among the Allies broke down after the war. Discover how the United States tried to limit the spread of communism. Learn about three new international organizations. Understand how the events of 1949 shook America’s confidence. Objectives

2 Chapter 25 Section 1 Roots of the Cold War Terms and People iron curtain– a barrier to understanding and information satellite– a country ruled by another nation containment– President Truman’s policy of limiting Soviet expansion airlift– to send supplies on cargo planes veto– to reject

3 Chapter 25 Section 1 Roots of the Cold War The United States took measures to stop the spread of Communism. How did the United States respond to the early stages of the Cold War? After World War II, the Allies’ wartime alliance was replaced by the Cold War, a struggle between Communist and non-Communist nations.

4 Chapter 25 Section 1 Roots of the Cold War Differences arose among the wartime Allies even before the war had ended. Josef Stalin had promised to hold free elections in the parts of Eastern Europe under his control. Instead, he set up Communist governments in these nations. Russia Josef Stalin U.S. Franklin Roosevelt Britain Winston Churchill

5 Chapter 25 Section 1 Roots of the Cold War Stalin wanted to protect the Soviet Union by surrounding it with a ring of friendly countries. Winston Churchill referred to this threat as the iron curtain.

6 Chapter 25 Section 1 Roots of the Cold War The Cold War began at a time when many Americans worried about the nation’s leadership. President Franklin Roosevelt died suddenly in April Truman’s leadership had not yet been tested. Vice President Harry S. Truman took over as President. Harry S. Truman

7 Chapter 25 Section 1 Roots of the Cold War President Truman soon faced several Cold War challenges. A Communist-led revolt in Greece Truman declared that the U.S. would block the spread of Communism, a principle known as the Truman Doctrine. Soviet threats to Turkey and Iran

8 Chapter 25 Section 1 Roots of the Cold War European countries needed money to repair damages from the war. Communists said the capitalist system was too weak to make these repairs. Communist parties gained strength in nations including Italy and France. Military force alone would not contain Communism.

9 Chapter 25 Section 1 Roots of the Cold War To meet this crisis, the United States developed the Marshall Plan. The U.S. loaned 16 European countries more than $12 billion. The plan was a success. It helped France, West Germany, and Italy recover from the war.

10 Chapter 25 Section 1 Roots of the Cold War The focus of the Cold War next shifted to Germany. The Allies had split Germany into four zones after the war. Germany’s capital, Berlin, lay inside Soviet territory. American Zone French Zone Soviet Zone British Zone Germany In 1948, the Western Allies wanted to reunite Germany.

11 Chapter 25 Section 1 Roots of the Cold War Stalin opposed the reunification of Germany. The Soviets set up a blockade around Berlin, preventing food from reaching residents. The Allies responded with a massive airlift to bring supplies to the people of Berlin. The Soviets called off the blockade in May 1949.

12 Chapter 25 Section 1 Roots of the Cold War Germany was partially reunified in May The Western Allies combined their zones to form West Germany. The Soviet zone became East Germany. Berlin was also divided. The Soviets kept control of East Berlin.

13 Chapter 25 Section 1 Roots of the Cold War A divided Germany and Berlin remained a focus of Cold War tensions. Thousands of East Germans fled to West Germany. In 1961, the East German government built a wall around West Berlin. The Berlin Wall stood for 28 years.

14 Chapter 25 Section 1 Roots of the Cold War Cold War threats led the United States to join two international organizations. The U.S. helped form the United Nations to maintain world peace. The U.S. joined NATO for protection against an attack from the Soviets. These actions signaled a turn away from U.S. isolationism.

15 Chapter 25 Section 1 Roots of the Cold War The United States played a leading role in creating the United Nations, or UN. The UN had two main goals. Maintain peace. Settle international disputes. The UN has two parts: the General Assembly and the Security Council. Each country in the General Assembly gets one vote.

16 Chapter 25 Section 1 Roots of the Cold War The UN has been successful in fighting hunger and disease and improving education. All UN nations are supposed to follow its decisions. The five permanent members (U.S., Russia, China, Britain and France) can veto UN proposals. The fifteen countries on the Security Council hold most of the power.

17 Chapter 25 Section 1 Roots of the Cold War In 1949, the U.S. and other Western nations established the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). The Soviets and their satellites formed their own alliance, the Warsaw Pact. NATO nations agreed to protect one another against a Soviet attack.

18 Chapter 25 Section 1 Roots of the Cold War In 1949, two events shook America’s confidence. The Soviet Union exploded its own atomic bomb. Now, the Cold War seemed much more deadly. China fell under the control of the Communists. The most populous nation was now Communist. Americans were haunted by Cold War fears, but held hopes for a better life.

19 Chapter 25 Section 1 Roots of the Cold War Section Review Know It, Show It QuizQuickTake Quiz


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