Presentation on theme: "Objectives Examine how friendships among the Allies broke down after the war. Discover how the United States tried to limit the spread of communism."— Presentation transcript:
1 ObjectivesExamine how friendships among the Allies broke down after the war.Discover how the United States tried to limit the spread of communism.Learn about three new international organizations.Understand how the events of 1949 shook America’s confidence.
2 Terms and Peopleiron curtain– a barrier to understanding and informationsatellite– a country ruled by another nationcontainment– President Truman’s policy of limiting Soviet expansionairlift– to send supplies on cargo planesveto– to reject
3 How did the United States respond to the early stages of the Cold War? After World War II, the Allies’ wartime alliance was replaced by the Cold War, a struggle between Communist and non-Communist nations.The United States took measures to stop the spread of Communism.
4 Differences arose among the wartime Allies even before the war had ended. RussiaJosef StalinU.S.Franklin RooseveltBritainWinston ChurchillJosef Stalin had promised to hold free elections in the parts of Eastern Europe under his control.Instead, he set up Communist governments in these nations.
5 Stalin wanted to protect the Soviet Union by surrounding it with a ring of friendly countries. Winston Churchill referred to this threat as the iron curtain.
6 President Franklin Roosevelt died suddenly in April 1945. The Cold War began at a time when many Americans worried about the nation’s leadership.Harry S. TrumanPresident Franklin Roosevelt died suddenly in April 1945.Vice President Harry S. Truman took over as President.Truman’s leadership had not yet been tested.
7 President Truman soon faced several Cold War challenges. A Communist-led revolt in GreeceSoviet threats to Turkey and IranTruman declared that the U.S. would block the spread of Communism, a principle known as the Truman Doctrine.
8 European countries needed money to repair damages from the war. Military force alone would not contain Communism.European countries needed money to repair damages from the war.Communists said the capitalist system was too weak to make these repairs.Communist parties gained strength in nations including Italy and France.
9 To meet this crisis, the United States developed the Marshall Plan. The U.S. loaned 16 European countries more than $12 billion.The plan was a success. It helped France, West Germany, and Italy recover from the war.
10 The focus of the Cold War next shifted to Germany. The Allies had split Germany into four zones after the war.American ZoneFrench ZoneSoviet ZoneBritish ZoneGermanyGermany’s capital, Berlin, lay inside Soviet territory.In 1948, the Western Allies wanted to reunite Germany.
11 Stalin opposed the reunification of Germany. The Soviets set up a blockade around Berlin, preventing food from reaching residents.The Allies responded with a massive airlift to bring supplies to the people of Berlin.The Soviets called off the blockade in May 1949.
12 Germany was partially reunified in May 1949. The Western Allies combined their zones to form West Germany. The Soviet zone became East Germany.Berlin was also divided. The Soviets kept control of East Berlin.
13 A divided Germany and Berlin remained a focus of Cold War tensions. Thousands of East Germans fled to West Germany.In 1961, the East German government built a wall around West Berlin.The Berlin Wall stood for 28 years.
14 The U.S. helped form the United Nations to maintain world peace. Cold War threats led the United States to join two international organizations.The U.S. helped form the United Nations to maintain world peace.The U.S. joined NATO for protection against an attack from the Soviets.These actions signaled a turn away from U.S. isolationism.
15 The UN had two main goals. The United States played a leading role in creating the United Nations, or UN.Maintain peace.The UN had two main goals.Settle international disputes.The UN has two parts: the General Assembly and the Security Council.Each country in the General Assembly gets one vote.
16 All UN nations are supposed to follow its decisions. The fifteen countries on the Security Council hold most of the power.All UN nations are supposed to follow its decisions.The five permanent members (U.S., Russia, China, Britain and France) can veto UN proposals.The UN has been successful in fighting hunger and disease and improving education.
17 In 1949, the U.S. and other Western nations established the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO).NATO nations agreed to protect one another against a Soviet attack.The Soviets and their satellites formed their own alliance, the Warsaw Pact.
18 In 1949, two events shook America’s confidence. The Soviet Union exploded its own atomic bomb.China fell under the control of the Communists.Now, the Cold War seemed much more deadly.The most populous nation was now Communist.Americans were haunted by Cold War fears, but held hopes for a better life.
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