3 Changes United Nations has its first meeting: April 25th 1945 Officially sign the charter to establish the UN on June 26th.Harry Truman becomes president of the United States on April 12, 1945 because of the sudden death of FDR.Clement Attlee becomes the new British Prime Minister.
5 Potsdam ConferenceOpinions from the Yalta Conference do not count here, which causes tension between the two great powers.Truman does not want to take reparations from Germany per the agreement at Yalta.Soviets feel justified in taking the Eastern half of Germany because of the devastation wrought upon their home soil.20 million Russian deaths, half of whom were civilians.Holding this land would allow them to stop future invasions from the west, if they ever came.
6 Communism VS Democracy Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, and Poland.Can anyone tell me what kind of government these countries had after World War II?They had Communist governments and became Satellite nations of the USSR.A satellite nation is a nation that appears to be sovereign, but is actually under the control of another nation.
7 Goals of the United States Create a new world order in which all nations had the right to self-determination.Gain Access to raw materials and markets for its industries.Rebuild European governments to ensure stability and to create new markets for American goods.Reunite Germany, believing that Europe would be more secure if Germany were productive.
8 Goals of the Soviet Union Encourage communism in other countries as part of the worldwide struggle between workers and the wealthy.Rebuild its war-ravaged economy using Eastern Europe’s industrial equipment and raw materialsControl Eastern Europe to balance U.S. influence in Western Europe.Keep Germany divided and weak so that it would never again threaten the Soviet Union.
9 The Iron Curtain or Sinew of Peace Speech -- Winston Churchill Divided Europe Page 811Buffer ZoneSatellite Nations that are the eastern European nations.Early 1946 Stalin makes a speech announcing that communism and capitalism were incompatible—and that another war is inevitable.
11 United States’ Response Policy of Containment – Feb. 1946—George KennanAn attempt to block Soviet expansion by creating alliances & supporting weak nations“Contain” CommunismOfficial U.S. Foreign Policy toward Soviet Union
12 Truman DoctrineFirst attempt by the United States to stymie communist growthMarch 1947$400 million aid to Turkey & GreeceGive aid to any country opposing CommunismStrengthen countries in order to fight off Communism. p. 812Boosted Anti-Communist feelings in America“it must be the policy of the United States to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures.” -Truman
13 Marshall Plan Proposed in June 1947 European Recovery Plan Aid to all countries in EuropeCountered hunger, poverty, depression, and chaosPromptly approved Feb. 1948Soviet Union invaded and took over Czechoslovakia$12.5 billion in aid – highly successful
15 Berlin Airlift AKA – Berlin Blockade Soviets opposed German reunificationWest Berlin held hostage by SovietsCut off highway, water, and rail trafficCity faced starvationFood/Supplies flown into West Berlin327 continuous daysSoviets lift blockade May 1949
16 Reorganization of Germany Federal Republic of GermanyGreat Britain, U.S., & French ZonesWest GermanyCapital: BonnGerman Democratic RepublicSoviet ZoneEast GermanyCapital: East Berlin
17 North Atlantic Treaty Organization NATO10 Western European nationsU.S. and CanadaAn attack on one means an attack on allMarks the end of United States’ isolationism1st military alliance US joined during peacetime