21. MILITARISM “I and the army were born for one another.” -Kaiser WilhelmMilitarism- policy of glorifying ones armies
3MILITARISMWhat is it?Policy of glorifying military power and keeping a standing army always prepared for warArmed forces as tool of diplomacyWhich European country is strongest?From mid-15th century to start of 20th century, Great Britain because of navyBUT by 1890, Germany has largest army reserve and has begun building navy to rival that of Great Britain
5ALLIANCESWhat is it?European nations signed that committed them to support one another if attackedWhy did nations agree to this?Security through balance of power with peacetime alliancesTriple Entente (Great Britain, France, Russia)Triple Alliance (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire)BUT alliances are like “dominos” – once one country becomes involved, their allies have no choice but to fight!
6TRIPLE ENTENTETRIPLE ALLIANCEThe Triple Entente will become the Allies and the Triple Alliance will become the Central Powers!
73. IMPERIALISMThe battle over land and resources in Africa led to a bitter rivalry among European nations.Possessions of colonies displayed nationalism, militarism, and prestige.
8How is Imperialism related to Militarism? What is it?Policy of extending a nation’s authority over other countries by social, economic, political, or military meansWhy is this significant?European nations were competing for raw materials and new markets in Africa and AsiaEX: Great Britain vs. Germany vs. FranceHow is Imperialism related to Militarism?
94. NATIONALISMThere were several reasons for the growing nationalism in Europe. There was increased competition between nations for materials and markets, the glory of having the best military and also having colonial assets.
10NATIONALISMWhat is it?Belief that people should be loyal mainly to their nationNational interests and national unity should be placed ahead of global cooperationForeign affairs should be guided by self-interestImpact?France and Germany are competitors – won’t become Allies!Russia’s role as protector leads them into the warEthnic groups want their own nations
11M.A.I.N.Not sure how you’ll remember all of this? Just remember that these are the MAIN causes of WWI! M – Militarism A – Alliances I – Imperialism N – Nationalism
12The Spark: An Assassination The Balkan region was considered “the powder keg of Europe”Lots of nationalists feelings and ethnic uprisingsRussia: access to the Mediterranean SeaGermany: a rail link to the Ottoman EmpireAustria-Hungary: accused Serbia of undermining its rule over BosniaJune of 1914: Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the Austrian throne, gunned down by a Serbian radicalThe Archduke is assassinated in Sarajevo in June 1914
13History Channel Video Clip! The Alliances FallHistory Channel Video Clip!Austria-Hungary (with prodding from Germany) declares war on SerbiaAs a Serbian ally, Russia declares war on Austria-HungaryGermany declares war on RussiaFrance declares war on Austria-Hungary and GermanyGermany invades Belgium to knock France out of the WarGreat Britain declare wars on Austria-Hungary and Germany
14The Fighting BeginsThe Alliance system pulled one nation after another into the conflict – The Great War had begunAugust 3, 1914: Germany invaded BelgiumPlan called for a quick strike through Belgium to Paris, FranceNext, Germany would attack RussiaDesigned to prevent a two-front war for GermanyHowever - Great Britain declares war on Germany upon the Belgian invasion and France does not easily fallThe Schlieffen Plan
15The War Becomes A Stalemate Unable to save Belgium, the Allies retreatedhalted the German advance in September of 1914By spring 1915, two systems of trenches crossed France from Belgium to Switzerland3 types of trenches: front line, support, and reserveBetween enemy trenches was “no man’s land” – barren expanse of mud and barbed wireArmies fought to gain only yards of ground in trench warfareBritish soldiers standing in mudHistory Channel Video Clip!
16The conditions in these trenches were horrific; aside from the fear of bombardment, soldiers also had to contend with the mud, flooding and disease associated with living in such a harsh environment.
18The World War I Battlefield New WeaponsNeither side able to make significant advancesEach side turned to new weapons like poison gasValue limited, both sides developed gas masksRapid-fire machine guns in wide useArtillery and high-explosive shells, enormous destructive powerHistory Channel Video Clip!
19New Problems of WarTroops amidst filth, pests, polluted water, poison gas, dead bodiesPhysical problems include dysentery, trench foot, trench mouthNew weapons and tactics lead to horrific injuriesConstant bombardment, battle fatigue produce “shell shock”
21Prelude to War – Election of 1912 William Taft - incumbent, Republicanlaissez-faire, Gilded Age politicsWoodrow Wilson - surprise candidate, Democratprogressivist, pro-small business and competitionTeddy Roosevelt - progressive “Bull Moose” party, best showing ever by 3rd partymilitant anti-trust politicsEugene Debs - socialist, won 6% of the vote - the most votes won by a socialist candidate in US historypeaceful overthrow of capitalism
22Divided LoyaltiesSocialists (overthrow capitalism), pacifists, many ordinary people against the U.S. entering warNaturalized citizens concerned about the war’s effect on their country of birthAnglophiliacs: people with a strong admiration or enthusiasm for England, its people, and all things English
23The Economics of War U.S. had loaned extensive $$ to Western Europe U.S. has stronger economic ties with Allies than with Central PowersEven though U.S. was officially neutral:U.S. traded heavily with Britain and FranceComplied with a British embargo on trading with Germany
24United States Neutrality Germany using “unrestricted submarine warfare”Any ship traveling in waters around Great Britain was subject to attack by U-boatsInitially U-boats attacked only military and merchant shipsMay 7, 1915: Passenger ship Lusitania struck by German torpedo and sinks in 18 minutes1,198 of the 1,959 passengers go down with the ship, including 120 AmericansGermany agreed to stop attacking passenger ships if U.S. stopped trading with BritainHistory Channel Video Clip!
25The Zimmerman Note February 1917 - discovery of Zimmermann Note Secret message from German diplomat Arthur Zimmerman to the Mexican governmentGermany proposed Mexico attack the U.S.Promised the Mexican government control of Texas, Arizona and New Mexico, territory that had once belonged to MexicoGermans hoped that a war with Mexico would keep U.S. out of war in EuropeAmerican public called for war against Germany
26A Declaration of WarGermany asks U.S. to get Britain to end food blockadeotherwise will renew unrestricted submarine warBritain declinesKaiser announces U-boats will sink all ships in British watersFour unarmed American merchant ships sunkApril 2, 1917: U.S. declares war
27American power tips the balance The United States mobilizes a large army and navy to help the Allies achieve victory.American power tips the balance
28Mobilizing An ArmySelective Service Act - men register and are randomly chosen for serviceAfrican Americans are put in segregated units; excluded from navy, marinesWomen in put into Army, Navy, and Marines as nurses, secretaries, and phone operators
29U.S. Naval Contributions Convoy system—destroyers escort merchant ships across Atlanticlosses from U-boat attacks drop dramaticallyNavy helps lay mines across North Sea, keeps U-boats out of AtlanticBy 1918: Germans have difficulty replacing boats and trained submariners
30The “Doughboys”After 2.5 years of fighting, Allied forces are exhausted and demoralizedU.S. troops bring numbers, enthusiasm, and supplies“Doughboys” greatly impressed by European cities, especially Paris, but horrified by the battle conditionsName originated during the Spanish American war where infantry soldiers were often coated in a white dust, making them look like dough boys in a bakery
31Allies Stop German Advance Russian Revolution and overthrow of the Tsar results in major changesRussia pulls out of war 1917Germans shift entire focus to Western Frontcome within 50 miles of ParisAmericans help stop German advance, turn tide against Central PowersSent Leon Trotsky to negotiate peace with Central PowersRussia’s army was virtually powerless at this pointTrotsky had to accept an agreement that was very harsh on RussiaRussia gained peace but they gave up large parts of their empire
32WWI spurs social, political, and economic changes in the U.S. The war at home
33Changing the EconomyEconomy shifts from producing consumer goods to war suppliesCongress gives Wilson direct control of much of the economyWar Industries Board is main regulatory bodymass-production, standardization of productsConservation measures adopted by public in every aspect of life
34A New War EconomyIndustrial wages rise but so do costs of food and housingLarge corporations make enormous profitsUnions boom from dangerous conditions, child labor, unfair payWilson creates National War Labor Board to settle disputes
35War Financing U.S. spends $35.5 billion on war effort 1/3 paid through taxes, 2/3 borrowed through sale of war bonds
36The Committee on Public Information Propaganda—biased communication designed to influence peopleFormer muckraker heads Committee on Public InformationVisual works and printed matter to promote warGet volunteers to speak about war, distribute materials
41Women in the WarMany women take jobs in heavy industry previously held by menMany do volunteer work for war effortSome active in peace movementWomen’s effort bolsters support for suffrage - 19th Amendment finally passes
42Anti-Immigrant Hysteria Attacks on immigrants increase, especially those from Germany, Austria-HungaryEspionage and Sedition Acts passedperson can be fined, imprisoned for interfering with war effort, speaking against governmentViolates 1st Amendment; used to prosecute loosely defined antiwar activities
43With the fall of Germany, the Allies must decide on peace terms The war ends
44The Collapse of Germany - 1918 The End of WWINov 3, 1918: Austria-Hungary surrendersGerman soldiers and sailors rebel, socialists establish a new German RepublicNovember 11, 1918: Germany signs armistice (truce)The Final TollWorld War I bloodiest war in history to dateMore than half of the 22 million deaths are civilians20 million more are wounded10 million people become refugees
46Wilson’s Fourteen Points President Woodrow Wilson presents a plan for peace:1-5: why countries could declare war6-13: new boundary changesSelf-determination - ethnic groups, not the winning countries, would decide what nation to belong to14: creates the League of NationsInternational organization for nations to discuss and settle their problems without going to war“Collective Security”
47An Uneasy PeaceLeaders of four major Allied countries all had different ideas of peace treatyFrance: punish Germany; reparationsBritish: punish Germany, but not weaken itItaly: gain territory (mostly ignored during peace talks)US: Wilson’s 14 Points
48The Treaty of Versailles - 1919 $Several issues that needed to be dealt with:DebtMilitary ThreatsTerritorial DisputesBlame
49$ Issue #1: DEBT Britain and France heavily in debt Did not want to pay– felt they weren’t responsibleTreaty Solution: ReparationsGermany and Central Powers held responsible for ALL financial lossesGermany ordered to pay reparations in excess of 6.6 Billion!!
50Issue #2: MILITARY THREATS Many feared another Great WarTreaty Solution:Rhineland (German industrial center) demilitarizedGerman army capped at 100,000 menVolunteers onlyGerman Navy destroyedGermany use of tanks and heavy artillery FORBIDDENLeague of Nations created
52Issue #3: TERRITORIAL DISPUTES Many areas of Europe were in political turmoil and some empires no longer existedTreaty Solutions:Germany lost 13.5% of its total landFrance gains back Alsace-Lorraine15 new nations are created
54People wanted to be able to put the blame somewhere. Issue #4: BLAMEPeople wanted to be able to put the blame somewhere.Treaty Solution:The War-Guilt ClauseGermany had to accept the blame for the entire warHad to admit that they were solely responsible for atrocities committed during the warArticle 231 widely known as the war guilt clause put entire blame of the war on Germany by ways of German aggression and agitation of other nations.
55Signing of the TreatyHall of Mirrors in Versailles. The Treaty of Versailles was only one of the treaties signed at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919.
56Weaknesses of Treaty Germany couldn‘t pay back reparations Germany hated the war guilt clauseRussia felt ignoredNot invited to meeting; had suffered the highest number of causalitiesLost more territory than Germany and was determined to get it backU.S. Senate voted down membership in the League of NationsMost Americans wanted nothing to do with Europe’s problems