Presentation on theme: "The Crises of the Late Middle Ages"— Presentation transcript:
1 The Crises of the Late Middle Ages 1300-1450 9/3/13
2 The Crises of the Late Middle Ages Key TermsGreat FamineBlack DeathbuboflagellantsAgincourtJoan of Arcrepresentative assembliesnationalismBabylonian CaptivityGreat SchismconciliaristsconfraternitiesThe Imitation of Christpeasant revoltsJacquerieStatute of Kilkennyvernacular
3 Feudalistic SocietyKingsLordsKnightsSerfsDecentralized social system dividing people into hierarchical groupsHierarchy of FeudalismKingsLordsVassalsKnightsSerfs
4 Decentralized Government VS Centralized Government Centralized Government USADecentralized Feudal FrancePeople give power to ONE governmentPrivate citizens own resourcesPeople give the government power to protect them by obeying lawsSmall rulers control pieces of land (estates)Land is owned by lordsLords provide protection for labor and goods
5 Centralized vs Decentralized Government Central Government Derives Power from PeopleDecentralized Feudal France Fights Itself for Land and PowerUExecutive BranchSLegislative BranchAJudicial BranchKingLordVassalKingLordVassalKingLordVassal
6 What does Feudalism demand? ExpansionAgrarian Society (Farming)Decentralization in states* Church is the ONLY centralizing force in Europe.
7 Prelude to DisasterWhat were the demographic and economic consequences of climate change?Climate Change and Famine“Little Ice Age”Ruined harvestsDecreased nutrition poor healthConsequences: depopulation, volatile land market, and unstable international tradeGovernment IneptitudeIneffective price controlsStarving populace scapegoated and attacked Jews, lepers, and the wealthy
9 The Black Plague: Effects on Europe How did the spread of the plague shape European society?Arrival in EuropeGenoese ships brought plague to Italy in 1347PathologyFleas on (usually) black rats carried plague bacillusPoor sanitation spread plagueAppearance of one boil, then bleeding under the skin, vomiting of blood, then death (Approx 3 days)Medieval doctors could do nothingSpread of the DiseaseBlack rats stayed in cities, plague stayed in citiesEngland lost approx. 1/3 population, Italian cities lost more than halfPlague eventually spread to Eastern Europe, Balkans, Russia
10 The Black Plague: Effects on Europe CareDoctors could ease painThought caused by poison airFought with strong smelling substancesWealthy fled to countrysideThousands of Jews killed by people looking for scapegoatHospitals acted as refuges for sickBelief that plague was G-d’s anger
11 The Black Plague: Effects on Europe Social, Economic, and Cultural ConsequencesPriests suffered high mortality rates from tending to sickEmergency church measures like laymen administering extreme unction (sacrament) Medieval agrarian economy highly resilientGuilds accepted new membersCaused inflationPessimism, religious fanaticism, suspicion of pilgrims & travelers, and diminished funeral ritesNew colleges created due to priest shortageUltimately led to the Reformation by devastating populations and the Church
12 Simplified Soc-Econ-Cult Consequences Social“Good” priests diedNew colleges to produce more priest spread educationCulturalIncreased participation of laymenReligious fanaticism and pilgrimagesEconomicGuilds accepted new members, womenInflation
13 The Hundred Years’ War 1337-1453 What were the causes of the Hundred Years’ War, and how did the war affect European politics, economics, and cultural life?Causes1328, French denied English King Edward III to throne, chose Philip VI of French Valois family instead (Plantagenet vs Valois)1337 Philip VI conquered Edward III’s AquitaineSplit French society into Pro-Valois and Pro-Edward III, barons benefited from decentralizationEconomic tension between wool trade, control of Flemish towns escalated conflict
15 The Hundred Years’ War The Popular Response Both English and French kings used priests to spark patriotismWar was opportunity for poor knights to plunder land
16 The Hundred Years’ War The Course of the War to 1419 England ahead early due to longbowCrecy (1346), Poitiers (1356) and Agincourt (1415) examples of longbow victoriesJoan of Arc and France’s Victory1429 peasant girl was instrumental to French victory1453, England only maintained control of the port of Calais in FranceBattle of Agincourt
17 Jeanne d’ Arc"I was thirteen when I had a Voice from God for my help and guidance. The first time that I heard this Voice, I was very much frightened; it was mid-day, in the summer, in my father's garden. ” - Joan of Arc from her trial transcript.
18 The Hundred Years’ War: Conclusion Costs and ConsequencesLocal social deterioration of England due to Sheriffs serving in militaryKing Edward III had to negotiate for money from barons, strengthening ParliamentGrowth of nationalism in both countriesNationalismEnglishParliamentEnglish CivilPeace
19 Challenges to the Church What challenges faced the Christian Church in the fourteenth century, and how did church leaders, intellectuals, and ordinary people respond?The Babylonian Captivity and the Great SchismPhilip the Fair (Philip IV or Philip of Navarre I) coerced Pope Clement V to stay in Avignonpopes stayed in Avignon, France controlled by French monarchyUrban VI returned to Rome with an anti-corruption agenda
20 Challenges to the Church Some Cardinals returned to France in response to Urban’s agenda and chose a new pope.Pope Clement VII resided in AvignonKings supported different popes for political reasons1. Pope Clement V moves to Avignon, France (1309)2. Pope Urban VI moves back to Rome (1376)3. Corrupt Cardinals ditch Urban VI to move back to Avignon, France and select NEW Pope Clement VII
22 Relationship Between Power and Legitimacy of Church StateChurch
23 Challenges to the Church The Conciliar MovementPrior to the schism, Marsiglio (rector of University of Paris) argued for Pope to be inferior to higher councilEnglish scholar John Wyclif ( ) argued against scriptural support for pope and advocated that people read Bible for themselvesCardinals of Avignon and Rome called Council of Pisa (1409) deposing both Urban VI and Clement VII, electing a third “true” popeDid that fix the problem?
24 Challenges to the Church Third Pope was challenged by BOTH the Avignon and Roman Pope and there were now THREE popescouncil at Constance organized by German Emperor Sigismund elected a final new pope and burned Jan Hus at the stakeFirst Church Reformer
25 Economic and Social Change How did economic and social tensions contribute to revolts, crime, violence, and a growing sense of ethnic and national distinctions?Peasant RevoltsUprisings in Flanders ( ) first massmovement of fourteenth centuryCaused by heavy indemnities on peasantsPeasants were crushed by French in 1328Famine, plague, and high taxes during Hundred Years’ War caused Jacquerie rebellion
26 Peasant RevoltsTorture of gentry by peasants Defeat of the Jacquerie
27 Economic and Social Change Urban ConflictsLate fourteenth century rebellions in Florence, Spain, and German cities (HRE)Caused by changing conditions of work, economic issues, and honorHonor was tied to journeymen’s guilds
28 Economic and Social Change Sex in the CityLater marriage for women, especially poor urban and peasant womenMen of all classes married olderUrban unrest caused by strict marriage rulesCities hosted brothelsSingle women were victims of unwanted sexual contactRise in hostility of same-sex relationships (although women’s same-sex relationships were unnoticed by society)
29 Economic and Social Change Ethnic Tensions and RestrictionsEarly colonization saw colonizers maintain their own laws while natives maintained own laws (except with England and Ireland)14th century saw regulations, laws, and customs discriminate on “blood descent” against Slavs, Irish, and Moors
30 Economic and Social Change Literacy and Vernacular CultureBeginning in the early 14th century, writers began to write in own vernacular (language)Canterbury Tales by Geoffrey Chaucer of London, EnglandDivine Comedy by Dante Alighieri of FlorenceLiteracy rates rose reflecting (1) social complexity, (2) growth of commerce, and (3) expanding government bureaucracy
32 Crises of the Late Middle Ages Decline of FeudalismBlack Death100 Years’ WarGreat Schism
33 Consequences of the Crises --Decreased Population in Europe- Decreased Legitimacy of the Church- Increase of Urban Merchant Class-Decreased English King’s Power-Increased French King’s Power-Increased Nationalism-Increased Church Reform Ideas-Increased States’ Power over Church-Decreased Legitimacy of the Church
34 Kings vs Lords vs Peasants ThemesChurch vs StateStruggle for PowerKings vs Lords vs Peasants
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