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The Crises of the Late Middle Ages

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1 The Crises of the Late Middle Ages 1300-1450

2 The Crises of the Late Middle Ages
Key Terms Great Famine Black Death bubo flagellants Agincourt Joan of Arc representative assemblies nationalism Babylonian Captivity Great Schism conciliarists confraternities The Imitation of Christ peasant revolts Jacquerie Statute of Kilkenny vernacular

3 Feudalistic Society Kings Lords Knights Serfs Decentralized social system dividing people into hierarchical groups Hierarchy of Feudalism Kings Lords Vassals Knights Serfs

4 Decentralized Government VS Centralized Government
Centralized Government USA Decentralized Feudal France People give power to ONE government Private citizens own resources People give the government power to protect them by obeying laws Small rulers control pieces of land (estates) Land is owned by lords Lords provide protection for labor and goods

5 Centralized vs Decentralized Government
Central Government Derives Power from People Decentralized Feudal France Fights Itself for Land and Power U Executive Branch S Legislative Branch A Judicial Branch King Lord Vassal King Lord Vassal King Lord Vassal

6 What does Feudalism demand?
Expansion Agrarian Society (Farming) Decentralization in states * Church is the ONLY centralizing force in Europe.

7 Prelude to Disaster What were the demographic and economic consequences of climate change? Climate Change and Famine “Little Ice Age” Ruined harvests Decreased nutrition poor health Consequences: depopulation, volatile land market, and unstable international trade Government Ineptitude Ineffective price controls Starving populace scapegoated and attacked   Jews, lepers, and the wealthy

8 The Plague Strikes Europe

9 The Black Plague: Effects on Europe
How did the spread of the plague shape European society? Arrival in Europe Genoese ships brought plague to Italy in 1347 Pathology Fleas on (usually) black rats carried plague bacillus Poor sanitation spread plague Appearance of one boil, then bleeding under the skin, vomiting of blood, then death (Approx 3 days) Medieval doctors could do nothing Spread of the Disease Black rats stayed in cities, plague stayed in cities England lost approx. 1/3 population, Italian cities lost more than half Plague eventually spread to Eastern Europe, Balkans, Russia

10 The Black Plague: Effects on Europe
Care Doctors could ease pain Thought caused by poison air Fought with strong smelling substances Wealthy fled to countryside Thousands of Jews killed by people looking for scapegoat Hospitals acted as refuges for sick Belief that plague was G-d’s anger

11 The Black Plague: Effects on Europe
Social, Economic, and Cultural Consequences Priests suffered high mortality rates from tending to sick Emergency church measures like laymen administering extreme unction (sacrament) Medieval agrarian economy highly resilient Guilds accepted new members Caused inflation Pessimism, religious fanaticism, suspicion of pilgrims & travelers, and diminished funeral rites New colleges created due to priest shortage Ultimately led to the Reformation by devastating populations and the Church

12 Simplified Soc-Econ-Cult Consequences
Social “Good” priests died New colleges to produce more priest spread education Cultural Increased participation of laymen Religious fanaticism and pilgrimages Economic Guilds accepted new members, women Inflation

13 The Hundred Years’ War 1337-1453
What were the causes of the Hundred Years’ War, and how did the war affect European politics, economics, and cultural life? Causes 1328, French denied English King Edward III to throne, chose Philip VI of French Valois family instead (Plantagenet vs Valois) 1337 Philip VI conquered Edward III’s Aquitaine Split French society into Pro-Valois and Pro-Edward III, barons benefited from decentralization Economic tension between wool trade, control of Flemish towns escalated conflict

14 Hundred Years’ War Map

15 The Hundred Years’ War The Popular Response
Both English and French kings used priests to spark patriotism War was opportunity for poor knights to plunder land

16 The Hundred Years’ War The Course of the War to 1419
England ahead early due to longbow Crecy (1346), Poitiers (1356) and Agincourt (1415) examples of longbow victories Joan of Arc and France’s Victory 1429 peasant girl was instrumental to French victory 1453, England only maintained control of the port of Calais in France Battle of Agincourt

17 Jeanne d’ Arc "I was thirteen when I had a Voice from God for my help and guidance. The first time that I heard this Voice, I was very much frightened; it was mid-day, in the summer, in my father's garden. ”  - Joan of Arc from her trial transcript.

18 The Hundred Years’ War: Conclusion
Costs and Consequences Local social deterioration of England due to Sheriffs serving in military King Edward III had to negotiate for money from barons, strengthening Parliament Growth of nationalism in both countries Nationalism English Parliament English Civil Peace

19 Challenges to the Church
What challenges faced the Christian Church in the fourteenth century, and how did church leaders, intellectuals, and ordinary people respond? The Babylonian Captivity and the Great Schism Philip the Fair (Philip IV or Philip of Navarre I) coerced Pope Clement V to stay in Avignon popes stayed in Avignon, France controlled by French monarchy Urban VI returned to Rome with an anti-corruption agenda

20 Challenges to the Church
Some Cardinals returned to France in response to Urban’s agenda and chose a new pope. Pope Clement VII resided in Avignon Kings supported different popes for political reasons 1. Pope Clement V moves to Avignon, France (1309) 2. Pope Urban VI moves back to Rome (1376) 3. Corrupt Cardinals ditch Urban VI to move back to Avignon, France and select NEW Pope Clement VII

21 The Great Schism

22 Relationship Between Power and Legitimacy of Church
State Church

23 Challenges to the Church
The Conciliar Movement Prior to the schism, Marsiglio (rector of University of Paris) argued for Pope to be inferior to higher council English scholar John Wyclif ( ) argued against scriptural support for pope and advocated that people read Bible for themselves Cardinals of Avignon and Rome called Council of Pisa (1409) deposing both Urban VI and Clement VII, electing a third “true” pope Did that fix the problem?

24 Challenges to the Church
Third Pope was challenged by BOTH the Avignon and Roman Pope and there were now THREE popes council at Constance organized by German Emperor Sigismund elected a final new pope and burned Jan Hus at the stake First Church Reformer

25 Economic and Social Change
How did economic and social tensions contribute to revolts, crime, violence, and a growing sense of ethnic and national distinctions? Peasant Revolts Uprisings in Flanders ( ) first mass movement of fourteenth century Caused by heavy indemnities on peasants Peasants were crushed by French in 1328 Famine, plague, and high taxes during Hundred Years’ War caused Jacquerie rebellion

26 Peasant Revolts Torture of gentry by peasants Defeat of the Jacquerie

27 Economic and Social Change
Urban Conflicts Late fourteenth century rebellions in Florence, Spain, and German cities (HRE) Caused by changing conditions of work, economic issues, and honor Honor was tied to journeymen’s guilds

28 Economic and Social Change
Sex in the City Later marriage for women, especially poor urban and peasant women Men of all classes married older Urban unrest caused by strict marriage rules Cities hosted brothels Single women were victims of unwanted sexual contact Rise in hostility of same-sex relationships (although women’s same-sex relationships were unnoticed by society)

29 Economic and Social Change
Ethnic Tensions and Restrictions Early colonization saw colonizers maintain their own laws while natives maintained own laws (except with England and Ireland) 14th century saw regulations, laws, and customs discriminate on “blood descent” against Slavs, Irish, and Moors

30 Economic and Social Change
Literacy and Vernacular Culture Beginning in the early 14th century, writers began to write in own vernacular (language) Canterbury Tales by Geoffrey Chaucer of London, England Divine Comedy by Dante Alighieri of Florence Literacy rates rose reflecting (1) social complexity, (2) growth of commerce, and (3) expanding government bureaucracy

31 Chaucer and Dante

32 Crises of the Late Middle Ages
Decline of Feudalism Black Death 100 Years’ War Great Schism

33 Consequences of the Crises
- -Decreased Population in Europe - Decreased Legitimacy of the Church - Increase of Urban Merchant Class -Decreased English King’s Power -Increased French King’s Power -Increased Nationalism -Increased Church Reform Ideas -Increased States’ Power over Church -Decreased Legitimacy of the Church

34 Kings vs Lords vs Peasants
Themes Church vs State Struggle for Power Kings vs Lords vs Peasants

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