2The Causes of the WarNationalism- each European country believed they were superior to the others; overzealous patriotismMilitarism (Arms Race)- European countries glorified armed strength and war-massive and competitive arms raceMilitary Alliances- Europeans bound together by a series of military treatiesImperialism (Rivalry over Colonies)- Europeans competing for colonies in Africa and Asia as a source of raw materials
4ARMS RACEEACH COUNTRY IN EUROPE HAD A DESIRE TO BETTER ITS ARMY AND NAVY.GREAT BRITAIN TRADITIONALLY HAD THE MOST POWERFUL NAVY IN EUROPE. GERMANY BEGAN TO EXPAND HER NAVY, WHICH CREATED TENSION BETWEEN THE TWO NATIONS.FRANCE LOST THE ALSACE-LORRAINE REGION TO GERMANY IN THE FRANCO-PRUSSIAN WAR OF THIS LEFT BITTERNESS BETWEEN THE TWO COUNTRIES AND A DETERMINATION BY FRANCE TO HAVE HER ARMY READY TO TAKE BACK THE TERRITORY FROM GERMANY.
5INTRICATE AND SOMETIMES SECRET ALLIANCES IN EUROPE LED TO OBLIGATIONS BUT ALSO DIVIDED LOYALTIES IF ATTACKEDAUSTRIA-HUNGARY HAD AN AGREEMENT WITH GERMANY WHO HAD AN AGREEMENT WITH ITALY. OTTOMAN EMPIRE WAS ALLIED WITH GERMANY AGAINST RUSSIA.SERBIA HAD AN AGREEMENT WITH RUSSIA WHO HAD AN AGREEMENT WITH FRANCE WHO HAD AN AGREEMENT WITH GREAT BRITAIN WHO HAD AN AGREEMENT TO PROTECT BELGIUM’S NEUTRALITY
7The Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austro-Hungary The Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austro-HungaryThe archduke and his wife Sofia assassinated by a Serbian nationalist Gavrilo PrincipOccurred in Sarajevo, Bosnia- resented Austria’s controlJune 28, 1914
8ARCHDUKE FRANZ FERDINAND AND FAMILY THE HEIR TO THE AUSTR0-HUNGARIAN THRONE WAS ASSASSINATED WHILE TOURING THROUGH SERBIA BY GAVRILO PRINCIP, A MEMBER OF AN ORGANIZATION CALLED BLACK HAND, WHO WANTED INDEPENDENCE FOR THE REGION FROM AUSTRIA-HUNGARY.THIS ASSASSINATION HELPED LEAD TO THE WAR AS COUNTRIES RUSHED TO AVENGE THE MURDER AND FULFILL THEIR ALLIANCE OBLIGATIONS.
9The Assassination (Continued) The Response (Tensions already high)1. Austria and Germany declared war on Serbia2. Russia, an ally of Serbia, moved troops to Serbia3. Germany declared war on Russia and its ally France4. Britain declared war on Germany
10ALLIESFRANCEUNITED KINGDOM (AND ALL OF HER COLONIES)ITALY RUSSIAJAPAN ROMANIASERBIA GREECEPORTUGALTHE WAR BEGAN WITH THE ALLIES VERSUS THE CENTRAL POWERS AND SIX NEUTRAL NATIONSNEUTRAL NATIONSSPAIN SWITZERLAND NORWAY SWEDEN BELGIUM DENMARKCENTRAL POWERSAUSTRIA-HUNGARYGERMANYBULGARIATURKEY
11HOW DID MOST AMERICANS FEEL ABOUT JOINING THE WAR IN EUROPE? MOST PEOPLE WANTED TO REMAIN NEUTRAL BECAUSE:THEY FELT THAT IT WAS NOT OUR FIGHTEUROPE WAS TOO FAR AWAYWAR WAS EXPENSIVEDIVIDED LOYALTIES SINCE WE TRADED WITH BOTH GERMANY AND GREAT BRITAIN (AND FRANCE) AND DID NOT WANT TO SEVER TIES WITH EITHER ONE BY FIGHTING AGAINST THEM
12U.S. POPULATION BY ETHNIC GROUP FROM BOTH SIDES OF THE WAR: 32,243,282 TOTAL U.S. POPULATION 1910: 91,972,266U.S. POPULATION BY ETHNIC GROUP FROM BOTH SIDES OF THE WAR: 32,243,282POPULATION BY ETHNIC GROUP IN MILLIONS
13Fighting the War-The Bloody Stalemate 1914-1917 WW I ( ) also called the Great WarEuropeans thought war would be over in a few monthsGermany fought a multi-front war:1. The Western Front- against Britain and France2. The Eastern Front- against the Russians
14The Western Front Eastern France Front’s position fluctuated little fromCharacterized by Trench WarfareBloody- massive amount of deaths
16The Horrors of Trench Warfare System of trenches dug along a 160-mile line in eastern FranceSoldiers fought from and lived in the trenchesBloody, muddy and unsanitaryConsisted of long artillery bombardments followed by infantry chargesHavens of disease, dead bodies, rats, flies and trench foot
18SLEEPING TOOK PLACE IN SHIFTS SO SOMEONE WAS ALWAYS WATCHING THE ENEMY MOST OF THE TIME IN THE TRENCHES WAS SPENT WAITING FOR THE FIGHTING TO BEGINSLEEPING TOOK PLACE IN SHIFTS SO SOMEONE WAS ALWAYS WATCHING THE ENEMY
20New Weapons of the 20th Century Warfare-WW I The Machine GunModern CannonChemical warfare- mustard and chlorine gasFlame ThrowerTanks- could break over the trenches and barbed wireAirplanes- The Red Baron- famous German pilot- downed many Allied planesU-boat Warfare- “unterseeboots” (submarines)
343 Events that drew America into the Conflict The sinking of the luxury liner Lusitania by a German u-boatGerman U-boats violate International Law- continued to sink American merchant vessels3. The Zimmerman Telegram- “the icing on the cake”
351. The Sinking of the Lusitania May 7, sunk in 18 minutesTorpedoed off the Irish coast1,200 dead out of 2000, including 128 Americans and 125 childrenContained a secret cargo –4200 cases of guns for the British and FrenchOutraged America, Germany apologized
37ALTHOUGH THIS EVENT ANGERED MANY AMERICANS, THE U. S ALTHOUGH THIS EVENT ANGERED MANY AMERICANS, THE U.S. DID NOT JOIN THE WAR FOR 2 MORE YEARS
382. Unrestricted Submarine Warfare 1917GERMANY ANNOUNCED THEY WOULD RESUME THEIR U-BOAT CAMPAIGN AND SINK ALL (INCLUDING AMERICAN) SHIPS IN THE WAR ZONE. MANY GERMANS WERE STARVING FROM THE BRITISH BLOCKADE AND THE GERMAN MILITARY BELIEVED THEY COULD FORCE THE BRITISH TO SURRENDER IN A FEW MONTHS, BEFORE THE U.S. WOULD ENTER, AND WIN THE WAR.WILSON CLUNG TO THE HOPE THAT GERMANY WOULD NOT ACTUALLY ATTACK U.S. SHIPS, HOWEVER IN MARCH FOUR UNARMED MERCHANT SHIPS WERE SUNK, WITH 36 LIVES LOST.
393. The Zimmerman Telegram The “icing on the cake” (January 1917)Sent to the German ambassador in Mexico from Arthur von ZimmermanCalled for Mexico to invade the US to keep the US from sending troops to EuropePromised to Mexico Texas, Arizona and New Mexico“Intercepted” by the BritishOn April 6, 1917, President Wilson convinced Congress to declare war on Germany
40ZIMMERMANN Telegram(1917) On the first of February we intend to begin submarine warfare unrestricted. In spite of this, it is our intention to endeavor to keep neutral the United States of America.If this attempt is not successful, we propose an alliance on the following basis with Mexico: That we shall make war together and together make peace. We shall give general financial support, and it is understood that Mexico is to reconquer the lost territory in New Mexico, Texas, and Arizona. The details are left to you for settlementYou are instructed to inform the President of Mexico of the above in the greatest confidence as soon as it is certain that there will be an outbreak of war with the United States and suggest that the President of Mexico, on his own initiative, should communicate with Japan suggesting adherence at once to this plan; at the same time, offer to mediate between Germany and Japan.Please call to the attention of the President of Mexico that the employment of ruthless submarine warfare now promises to compel England to make peace in a few months.Alfred Zimmermann, German Foreign Minister 1916
42US President Woodrow Wilson Asks Congress to declare war on Germany
43American Opposition to the War Quakers, Mennonites and Amish (pacifists)Socialists-argued that America was in the war to help out big businessWomen’s Peace PartyPeople who opposed the war were branded as “traitors” and “wrongdoers”Thousands of women hired in the factories to help with the war effort
44America MobilizesDraft was instituted- 9 million men drafted, 5 million men enlisted on their ownIndustrial production increased for weapons and other war suppliesAgricultural production increased to help feed troops
45DRAFTED MEN REPORTED FOR SERVICE IN SAN ANTONIO, TEXAS
46WAR PROPAGANDA POSTERS It encouraged businesses to spy on their employees, parents to spy on their children, and neighbors to spy on neighbors, and to report "disloyal," pro-German sentiments. In the most ridiculous moments of the campaign, Americans banned the teaching of German in schools, tore German folksongs like "Oh Tannenbaum" from children's songbooks, changed German street names, and renamed sauerkraut "victory cabbage." On the more serious side, those regarded as pro-German were hounded from their jobs, pressured to change their German names, and in a few cases beaten or lynched.
48American Soldiers in the War Soldiers arrived in November 19172 million by end of the war-Nov. 1918American soldiers called the “Doughboys”Brave and tough, but not well trained at firstBolstered the Allied forces in EuropeHelped the allied navy and air forces
49AFRICAN AMERICAN SOLDIERS SERVED IN SEGREGATED UNITS HENRY JOHNSON, LEFT, AND NEADHAM ROBERTS, RIGHT RECEIVED THE FRENCH CROIX DE GUERRE, AN AWARD CREATED TO RECOGNIZE BRAVERY IN THE FACE OF AN ENEMY
50BUILDING RAILROADS IN FRANCE ALTHOUGH AFRICAN AMERICAN SOLDIERS WERE USED MOSTLY FOR LABOR, THE FRENCH HIRED SOME INFANTRY THAT FOUGHT ALONGSIDE FRENCH WHITE SOLDIERS. THESE EXPERIENCES CONTRIBUTED TO THE SENSE OF EMPOWERMENT EXPRESSED BY THE BLACK COMMUNITY IN THE HARLEM RENAISSANCE IN THE 1920s.CUTTING DOWN TREESBUILDING RAILROADS IN FRANCE
51American Commander General John Pershing “When you hit, hit hard and don’t stop hitting”Intensified troop trainingLed the Allies to decisive victories
52HOW DID THE U.S. GOVERNMENT PAY FOR THE WAR? INCOME TAX CREATED IN 1913Amendment XVIThe Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever source derived, without apportionment among the several states, and without regard to any census or enumeration.BONDS: THE GOVERNMENT BORROWS MONEYWAR SAVING STAMPS: COST BETWEEN 25 CENTS AND $5, THE GOVERNMENT PRINTED BOOKLETS AND WHEN THEY WERE FULL THEY COULD BE TURNED IN FOR BONDS
55Propaganda Against Germans Americans were encouraged by the government to reject anything GermanBoycotts on German beer and music; names of foods changed- sauerkraut to “liberty cabbage”; hamburgers to “liberty sausage”German-Americans discriminated againstEspionage Act of 1917 and the Sedition Acts of restricted the lives and movement of German- Americans
56EXAMPLES OF ANTI-GERMAN SENTIMENT DURING WWI MANY AMERICAN SCHOOLS STOPPED OFFERING INSTRUCTION IN THE GERMAN LANGUAGE. CALIFORNIA'S STATE EDUCATION BOARD CALLED GERMAN A LANGUAGE OF "AUTOCRACY, BRUTALITY, AND HATRED”.SAUERKRAUT BECAME "LIBERTY CABBAGE"SALOONKEEPERS REMOVED PRETZELS FROM THE BARORCHESTRAL WORKS BY BACH, BEETHOVEN, AND BRAHMS VANISHED FROM MUSIC PROGRAMS, INCLUDING THAT OF THE NEW YORK PHILHARMONICMANY GERMAN AMERICANS WERE BADGERED, BEATEN, AND SOMETIMES KILLED.
60The End of the WarThe Russians pulled out of the war due to the Communist revolution in 1917The Allies, led by the US, repelled one last German offensive and pushed the Germans through the Argonne Forest and out of France back east into Germany by October 19181918- Austro-Hungarian ethnic groups rebelledNov. 11th, Germany signs an armistice-fighting ceasesThe German/Austro-Hungarian empire crumbles from withinMajor offensive against Germans in The Argonne led by American Major Charles Whittlesey- commander of the “Lost Battalion”
61Major Charles Whittlesey-commander of the “Lost Battalion”-held off the Germans in the Argonne Forest for several days until help arrived
62AN AMERICAN HEROSergeant Alvin C. York, 328th Infantry, who with aid of 17 men, captured 132 German prisoners; shows hill on which raid took place [October 8, 1918]. Argonne Forest, near Cornay, France., 02/07/1919
63“AT THE 11TH HOUR, OF THE 11TH MONTH, ON THE 11TH DAY” ARMISTICE SIGNED:“AT THE 11TH HOUR, OF THE 11TH MONTH, ON THE 11TH DAY”NOVEMBER 11, 1918 WWI ENDS
65US Casualties and the Results of the War 10 million soldiers killed, 20 million wounded in battle (worldwide)10 million civilians killed-many due to worldwide influenza epidemic112,000 US soldiers killed in action; 290,000 wounded ( in only 1 year of action)Women gain the right to vote in US and other parts of EuropeWorldwide Influenza Outbreak-600,000 Americans died from the flu
66PARADES QUICKLY SPREAD THE DISEASE INFLUENZA, 1918SOLDIERS NEAR BOSTON SUDDENLY STARTED DYINGTHE CAUSE OF DEATH WAS IDENTIFIED AS INFLUENZA, BUT IT WAS UNLIKE ANY STRAIN EVER SEENAS THE KILLER VIRUS SPREAD ACROSS THE COUNTRY, HOSPITALS OVERFILLED, DEATH CARTS ROAMED THE STREETS AND HELPLESS CITY OFFICIALS DUG MASS GRAVESIT WAS THE WORST EPIDEMIC IN AMERICAN HISTORY, KILLING OVER 600,000, FIVE TIMES THE DEATHS OF AMERICAN SOLDIERS IN THE WAR. IT DISAPPEARED AS MYSTERIOUSLY AS IT HAD BEGUN.PARADES QUICKLY SPREAD THE DISEASE
68Results of the War (continued) The Treaty of Versailles (1919)- designed to punish Germany for the warPresident Wilson did not want to punish Germany, but to allow for all countries to determine their own fate (14 points)Germany had no say in the TreatyBeaten, stripped of her pride, some of her territory and colonial possessions, Germany plunged into economic depression setting the stage for the rise of Nazism and Adolph Hitler
69PARIS PEACE CONFERENCE “BIG FOUR” BRITISH, ITALIAN, FRENCH AND AMERICANGEORGE ORLANDO CLEMENCEAU WILSONWANTED TO MAINTAIN TRADE RELATIONS WITH GERMANY BUT WANTED COLONIESWANTED TO PUNISH GERMANY AND PREVENT FUTURE INVASIONWANTED LAND PROMISED DURING WWIWANTED 14 POINTS AND FAIR PEACE FOR ALL
70TREATY OF VERSAILLES, EUROPE TREATY OF VERSAILLES: THE PEACE TREATY ENDING WW I CAUSED MORE PROBLEMS THAN IT SOLVED AND LAID THE BASIS FOR WW II. NEW COUNTRIES CREATED FROM TREATY: POLAND, LITHUANIA, LATVIA, ESTONIA AND FINLAND WERE FORMED FROM LAND LOST BY RUSSIA. CZECHOSLOVAKIA AND HUNGARY WERE FORMED OUT OF THE AUSTRO-HUNGARIAN EMPIRE.
71WHAT WERE THE EFFECTS OF WWI IN AMERICA? U.S. BECAME A WORLD SUPERPOWERU.S. ECONOMY GREW DURING THE WAR, ALTHOUGH IT DID GO INTO A RECESSION SHORTLY THEREAFTERBIRTH OF AN ANTI-WAR MOVEMENTBIRTH OF ANTI-AMERICANISM WITHIN THE COUNTRYU.S. CULTURE WAS STARTING TO SPREAD ABROADBIRTH OF BLACK EMPOWERMENT MOVEMENTWOMEN WORKED OUTSIDE THE HOME IN HUGE NUMBERSBIRTH OF ANTI-COMMUNISM