Presentation on theme: "The Sectional Crisis (1820-1860) Question: What were the reasons and events that divided Americans so severely that by 1861, they would take up arms against."— Presentation transcript:
The Sectional Crisis ( ) Question: What were the reasons and events that divided Americans so severely that by 1861, they would take up arms against one another?
Point #1: North & South developed quite differently from the earliest settlements North Economy developed around manufacturing, shipping, commerce, small artisans modern factory system born in the 1820s at Lowell, MA South Economy developed around agriculture By the 1820s cotton became #1 crop
By the early 19 th century, the industrial north had most of the nations industry, transportation network, and population. With expansion westward, North also grew majority of nations basic food crops. The South had a narrow economy dependent upon cotton.
The slavery issue Cotton became so dominant a crop, it was called King Cotton South needed cheap labor to produce cotton …slavery since the 1600s Early 1800s, Southerners apologized for it as a necessary evil By the 1830s, no longer apologized…now defended it as a positive good (JC Calhouns speech)
What about slavery in the new territories?
1 st clash: Missouri Applied for admission in 1819 Missouri Compromise (1820) 1.Maine in as free state…Missouri as slave 2.Rest of Louisiana Territory split into 2 spheres: 1 free & 1 slave….dividing line was 36 o 30 north latitude 3.Problem of slavery in federal territories was solved…or was it?
Missouri Compromise (1820)
The Tariff Issue What is a tariff ? 1.Duty (tax) placed by govt on imported goods 2.Makes foreign goods more expensive than American-made 3.Tariff intended to protect American industry
The Tariff Issue Several tariffs passed by Congress to protect northern industry from British-made goods Southerners needed cheap goods from Europe The Tariff of 1828 was the real problem…Southerners called it the Tariff of Abominations South Carolina declared the states right to nullify the Tariff…that the Tariff was null and void within the states boundaries…
States Rights ? Argument that dated back to Art. of Confed. the real issue: states rights v. federal rights…which holds ultimate authority? With Sen. John C. Calhoun leading, So. Carolina threatened to secede from the Union Congress passed the Force Bill… –Gave Pres. Andrew Jackson authority to use military, if necessary, to enforce collection of the tariff on imports –Congress agreed to phase out the Tariff over several years & S. Carolina backed down
Next Crisis: Land won from Mexico….slave or free? David Wilmot (PA) offered this on the floor of the Senate in 1846: slavery…shall never exist in any part of any territory obtained from Mexico The Wilmot Proviso never became law but the slavery issue had become a national debate
New Crisis: California Gold discovered in 1848…population exploded overnight By 1850, CA ready for admission to US How to settle the slavery issue since part of CA was north, part south of ? Henry Clay (Great Compromiser) offered this:
The Compromise of CA in as a free state 2.Utah and N. Mexico Territory to be divided into 2 separate territories… slavery to be decided by popular sovereignty 3.Tough fugitive slave law to be adopted
Fugitive Slave Law 1.Added to the Compromise to placate southerners 2.Tougher laws on runaway slaves 3.(many had run away using the safe houses of the Underground RR to escape to freedom in the North) 4.Punishment for those who helped runaways
Abolitionists Opposed to slavery…wanted to see it abolished (ended) William Lloyd Garrison published powerful and influential newspaper The Liberator that continued the fight to end slavery
Uncle Toms Cabin Harriet Beecher Stowe Published in 1852…publicized horrors of slavery Became best-seller in the North and in Europe Served to further polarize public opinion on the slavery debate
Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854) Stephen A. Douglas (Dem. From Illinois) introd bill in Congress that would divide the territory west of Missouri into 2 territories: Nebraska and Kansas To get southern support for a northern RR route, he also proposed popular sovereignty to decide the slavery issue in the 2 new territories (if passed, it would repeal the Missouri Comp.)
Kan.-Neb. Act (contd) Congress passed the Act in 1854…what would happen?
Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854)
Bleeding Kansas From both sides of the slavery issue, people rushed into Kansas to sway the vote Kansas became a bloody, violent battleground b/t pro and anti-slave forces.
Dred Scott Decision (1857) Who was Dred Scott and what was the case about? Supreme Court ruled that: 1.Scott had no right to sue (not a citizen) 2.Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional…violated right to property (5 th Amendment)
Summary As election of 1860 drew near, North and South were deeply & impossibly divided Southerners feared Northern abolitionists would destroy southern culture and economy (in short, everything!) Slavery had become the lightning rod issue