Presentation on theme: "The Sectional Crisis ( )"— Presentation transcript:
1The Sectional Crisis (1820-1860) Question:What were the reasons and events that divided Americans so severely that by 1861, they would take up arms against one another?
2Point #1: North & South developed quite differently from the earliest settlements Economy developed around manufacturing, shipping, commerce, small artisans“modern” factory system born in the 1820’s at Lowell, MASouthEconomy developed around agricultureBy the 1820’s cotton became #1 crop
3The South had a narrow economy dependent upon cotton. By the early 19th century, the industrial north had most of the nation’s industry, transportation network, and population. With expansion westward, North also grew majority of nation’s basic food crops.The South had a narrow economy dependent upon cotton.
4The slavery issueCotton became so dominant a crop, it was called “King Cotton”South needed cheap labor to produce cotton …slavery since the 1600’sEarly 1800’s, Southerners apologized for it as a “necessary evil”By the 1830’s, no longer apologized…now defended it as a “positive good” (JC Calhoun’s speech)
6Missouri Compromise (1820) 1st clash: MissouriApplied for admission in 1819Missouri Compromise (1820)Maine in as free state…Missouri as slaveRest of Louisiana Territory split into 2 spheres: 1 free & 1 slave….dividing line was 36o 30’ north latitudeProblem of slavery in federal territories was solved…or was it?
8The Tariff Issue What is a tariff ? Duty (tax) placed by gov’t on imported goodsMakes foreign goods more expensive than American-madeTariff intended to protect American industry
9The Tariff IssueSeveral tariffs passed by Congress to protect northern industry from British-made goodsSoutherners needed cheap goods from EuropeThe Tariff of 1828 was the real problem…Southerners called it the “Tariff of Abominations”South Carolina declared the state’s right to nullify the Tariff…that the Tariff was “null and void within the state’s boundaries…”
10States’ Rights ? Argument that dated back to Art. of Confed. the real issue: states’ rights v. federal rights…which holds ultimate authority?With Sen. John C. Calhoun leading, So. Carolina threatened to secede from the UnionCongress passed the Force Bill…Gave Pres. Andrew Jackson authority to use military, if necessary, to enforce collection of the tariff on importsCongress agreed to phase out the Tariff over several years & S. Carolina backed down
11Next Crisis: Land won from Mexico….slave or free? David Wilmot (PA) offered this on the floor of the Senate in 1846:“slavery…shall never exist in any part of any territory obtained from Mexico”The Wilmot Proviso never became law but the slavery issue had become a national debate
12New Crisis: California Gold discovered in 1848…population exploded overnightBy 1850, CA ready for admission to USHow to settle the slavery issue since part of CA was north, part south of ’ ?Henry Clay (“Great Compromiser”) offered this:
13The Compromise of 1850 CA in as a free state Utah and N. Mexico Territory to be divided into 2 separate territories… slavery to be decided by “popular sovereignty”Tough fugitive slave law to be adopted
15Fugitive Slave Law Added to the Compromise to placate southerners Tougher laws on runaway slaves(many had run away using the safe houses of the Underground RR to escape to freedom in the North)Punishment for those who helped runaways
16William Lloyd Garrison published powerful and influential newspaper AbolitionistsOpposed to slavery…wanted to see it “abolished” (ended)William Lloyd Garrison published powerful and influential newspaperThe Liberatorthat continued the fight to end slavery
17Uncle Tom’s Cabin Harriet Beecher Stowe Published in 1852…publicized horrors of slaveryBecame best-seller in the North and in EuropeServed to further “polarize” public opinion on the slavery debate
18Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854) Stephen A. Douglas (Dem. From Illinois) intro’d bill in Congress that would divide the territory west of Missouri into 2 territories: Nebraska and KansasTo get southern support for a northern RR route, he also proposed popular sovereignty to decide the slavery issue in the 2 new territories (if passed, it would repeal the Missouri Comp.)
19Kan.-Neb. Act (cont’d)Congress passed the Act in 1854…what would happen?
21“Bleeding Kansas”From both sides of the slavery issue, people rushed into Kansas to sway the voteKansas became a bloody, violent battleground b/t pro and anti-slave forces.
22Dred Scott Decision (1857)Who was Dred Scott and what was the case about?Supreme Court ruled that:Scott had no right to sue (not a citizen)Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional…violated right to property (5th Amendment)
23SummaryAs election of 1860 drew near, North and South were deeply & impossibly dividedSoutherners feared Northern abolitionists would destroy southern culture and economy (in short, everything!)Slavery had become the “lightning rod” issue