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A House Divided The Nation Breaking Apart (1820-1860)

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Presentation on theme: "A House Divided The Nation Breaking Apart (1820-1860)"— Presentation transcript:

1 A House Divided The Nation Breaking Apart ( )

2 Sectionalism and Compromise North was based on industry and small, white farmers North was based on industry and small, white farmers South relied on plantation agriculture, slave labor as well as farmers South relied on plantation agriculture, slave labor as well as farmers Compromise used to settle differences Compromise used to settle differences

3 Missouri Compromise Created in 1820 to determine future expansion of slavery Created in 1820 to determine future expansion of slavery Missouri entered Union as slave state Missouri entered Union as slave state Maine’s statehood kept the balance between free and slave states in Senate Maine’s statehood kept the balance between free and slave states in Senate

4 Missouri Compromise Compromise stated that 36º 30’ N. latitude would be the dividing line of slavery expansion west into territories Compromise stated that 36º 30’ N. latitude would be the dividing line of slavery expansion west into territories Areas south of line would have slavery while those north would not Areas south of line would have slavery while those north would not

5 Missouri Compromise

6 Compromise of 1850 Needed to organize new land from Mexico Needed to organize new land from Mexico Proposed by Henry Clay and included 4 major points: Proposed by Henry Clay and included 4 major points: Slavery not excluded from Utah and New Mexico territories, voters would decide issue Slavery not excluded from Utah and New Mexico territories, voters would decide issue

7 Compromise of 1850 California admitted as free state California admitted as free state Strict Fugitive Slave Law passed Strict Fugitive Slave Law passed Slave trade abolished in District of Columbia Slave trade abolished in District of Columbia Each item passed as separate bill Each item passed as separate bill

8 Fugitive Slave Law Included in Compromise of 1850 Included in Compromise of 1850 Southern states wanted Northern support in returning slaves Southern states wanted Northern support in returning slaves Northerners had been using Underground Railroad to help escaped slaves get to Canada Northerners had been using Underground Railroad to help escaped slaves get to Canada

9 Fugitive Slave Law Law said all citizens had to help catch and return runaway slaves Law said all citizens had to help catch and return runaway slaves Brutally enforced by slaveowners Brutally enforced by slaveowners Southerners saw law as important to nation Southerners saw law as important to nation Hated and avoided by many in North Hated and avoided by many in North

10 Fugitive Slave Law

11 Kansas-Nebraska Act Created in 1854 to pave way for transcontinental railroad Created in 1854 to pave way for transcontinental railroad Repealed Missouri Compromise and used popular sovereignty Repealed Missouri Compromise and used popular sovereignty Idea promoted by Stephen Douglas that citizens could determine their own destiny Idea promoted by Stephen Douglas that citizens could determine their own destiny Passed with Southern support because of possibility of slavery Passed with Southern support because of possibility of slavery

12 Kansas-Nebraska Act Northerners against act formed Republican Party Northerners against act formed Republican Party Settlers fought over slavery in Kansas causing “Bleeding Kansas” Settlers fought over slavery in Kansas causing “Bleeding Kansas” Two governments struggled for control of the state Two governments struggled for control of the state

13 Kansas-Nebraska Act

14 Dred Scott Decision Scott, a slave, brought by master to Illinois and Wisconsin Scott, a slave, brought by master to Illinois and Wisconsin Sued for freedom since he had been in free state and territory Sued for freedom since he had been in free state and territory Supreme Court ruled in 1857 that Scott was not a citizen and was still a slave Supreme Court ruled in 1857 that Scott was not a citizen and was still a slave

15 Dred Scott Decision Court also ruled that Congress could not determine slavery in territories Court also ruled that Congress could not determine slavery in territories Republicans despised decision and sought to gain control of Supreme Court Republicans despised decision and sought to gain control of Supreme Court

16 Dred Scott Decision Dred Scott

17 John Brown’s Raid Brown, who fought in Kansas, was an extreme abolitionist Brown, who fought in Kansas, was an extreme abolitionist Wanted to start slave rebellion Wanted to start slave rebellion Attacked arsenal at Harper’s Ferry, VA on October 16, 1859 to gain weapons for revolt Attacked arsenal at Harper’s Ferry, VA on October 16, 1859 to gain weapons for revolt Captured after no slaves joined him Captured after no slaves joined him

18 John Brown’s Raid Brown tried for treason and hanged Brown tried for treason and hanged Many in North praised him as hero Many in North praised him as hero Southerners were horrified and wondered how they could share a country with such people. Southerners were horrified and wondered how they could share a country with such people. John Brown

19 Election of 1860 Democrats split over slavery Democrats split over slavery Northern Dems wanted popular sovereignty Northern Dems wanted popular sovereignty Southern Dems wanted protection of slavery in territories Southern Dems wanted protection of slavery in territories Douglas Breckinridge

20 Election of 1860 Republicans called for limiting spread of slavery; NOT ending it. Republicans called for limiting spread of slavery; NOT ending it. Constitutional Union Party favored compromise and avoided slavery Constitutional Union Party favored compromise and avoided slavery Bell Lincoln

21 Election of 1860

22 What will happen now? Southern states scared Lincoln will outlaw slavery Southern states scared Lincoln will outlaw slavery High mistrust between North and South High mistrust between North and South ANSWER Q’s AS SECESSION ANSWER Q’s AS SECESSION If Southern states don’t like president, what could they do? (Write/Share/Gesture) If Southern states don’t like president, what could they do? (Write/Share/Gesture)

23 Secession – removing from Union

24 Is secession legal? Can states just up and leave the Union when they want to? Can states just up and leave the Union when they want to? What should Lincoln do? What should Lincoln do? Southern states claim to be new nation (Confederate States of Amer.) Southern states claim to be new nation (Confederate States of Amer.) New president is Jefferson Davis New president is Jefferson Davis (Write/Share/Gesture) (Write/Share/Gesture)

25 What about North Carolina? What should North Carolina do? Should it secede too? What should North Carolina do? Should it secede too? Yes=show support for neighbor states & protect slavery Yes=show support for neighbor states & protect slavery No=stay loyal to U.S.; slavery not that big of a deal No=stay loyal to U.S.; slavery not that big of a deal (Write/Share/Gesture) (Write/Share/Gesture)

26 Open NC Textbook to p. 333 Read 1 st paragraph in Reactions in NC out loud as class with gestures Read 1 st paragraph in Reactions in NC out loud as class with gestures

27 Fort Sumter Why did NC not secede at same time as SC? (Write/Share/Gesture) Why did NC not secede at same time as SC? (Write/Share/Gesture) April 12, 1861 – SC troops attack Fort Sumter in Charleston April 12, 1861 – SC troops attack Fort Sumter in Charleston Read 2 nd paragraph as class Read 2 nd paragraph as class Read 3 rd paragraph as class Read 3 rd paragraph as class

28 NC secedes to join CSA What was the final straw that made NC decide to secede? (Write/Share/Gesture) What was the final straw that made NC decide to secede? (Write/Share/Gesture) How was NC unique among Southern states in the way it felt about the war? (Write/Share/Gesture) How was NC unique among Southern states in the way it felt about the war? (Write/Share/Gesture)


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